Numerous field walls and farming terraces built of large stones, some of which are roughly hewn (1–8, 10, 12–14), were surveyed at the foot of the southern slope of Giv‘at Hatul. Worn pottery sherds, probably dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods and later periods, are scattered between the walls and the farming terraces. Rock-cuttings (9, 11) and possible caves or rock shelters (15, 19) were also found in this area. A spring (21) mouth was surrounded with dressed stones to create an opening similar to that of a circular well; the spring opening was full of water. Another row of dressed stones was set around the spring opening, leaving a channel-like space between them. Nearby is a modern pool (20), which is probably linked to the spring. A round lime kiln, dug in the ground and lined with medium and large fieldstones (18), was also found; only half of the installation has survived. A burial cave (16; Fig. 8) hewn inside a rectangular courtyard was surveyed beside the road, at the foot of a northern slope leading down to Nahal of Dereck Burma. The cave opening, which was damaged and covered with a boulder, is framed with two decorative rectangular grooves. Several farming terraces built of a single row of large stones (17) were also found.
Antiquities documented further to the west include a long pile of stones (22), a bedrock terrace possibly with a cave (23), a scatter of flint items and tools that could not be dated (25), a cave (27), stone heap (34), as well as farming terraces (26, 28, 29, 31, 32), remains of a watchman’s hut (?; 30) and a field wall that might be modern (35). A dense scatter of pottery and glass fragments (36) from the Byzantine period was documented on the southwestern slope of the spur, near Trig. Point 365. It seems that these items were swept here from the north. Further south is a sparse scatter of sherds, also not in situ (41). Several cupmarks and rock-cuttings (33, 38, 40) were surveyed in this area. ‘En Hila (37) is a spring whose water flows from a metal pipe today; it is surrounded by modern construction.
A cluster of watchman’s huts built of large stones (45–47, 50) was surveyed on steep slopes within a forest area. Most of the structures are irregularly square or rectangular, and may not be ancient. Near Watchman’s Hut 47 was a straight rock-cutting, possibly an installation (winepress?; 48). A deep cave alongside the road (44), a cave (?; 39), a circular rock-cutting at the foot of a slope (49), a deep depression blocked by vegetation (52), remains of a road (43), a farming terrace (42) and a stone heap surrounded by large stones (51) were also surveyed. Further west along the route were the remains of a quarry (?; 55) and a plastered cistern that is lined with small stones. The cistern has two openings: a neatly hewn square shaft (54; Fig. 9) and another opening, c. 2 m to the east.
A ruin (Sites 56–60) was surveyed in a slightly elevated area, c. 250 m south of Trig. Point 314 and Newe Shalom: a concentration of dressed building stones; partial installations and ruinous buildings (58, 59) and a rock-hewn crushing basin (yam) of an olive press, lying on the ground to their south (57); and a straight wall well-built of large dressed stones (60). Numerous fragments of pottery vessels (56), mostly from the Roman and Byzantine periods, including a Byzantine tile, were scattered on the surface of the ruin and on the road to its north. Although most of the ruins’ components are not in situ, these finds probably indicate its date. A cave opening (?; 61), very sparse sherd scatters (62, 63) and a concentration of fieldstones (64) were surveyed near Horbat Avimor.
Finds identified north of Tel Aful include a scatter of worn sherds (65), a carelessly hewn cave (66), two cupmarks (67), heaps of large (68, 69) and small (70) fieldstones, field walls built of large stones (71–73) and a rock-cutting forming a right angle (74). A large orchard surrounded by a field wall built of two rows of stones was surveyed on the slope of a low hill northeast of Kibbutz Har’el. A bedrock surface with cupmarks (76) hewn in it was located near the orchard’s enclosure wall. In and around the orchard are stone clearance heaps (77–79), numerous field walls (80, 81) and a stone heap containing building stones (75).
Large concentrations of rock-hewn installations and other remains were found west and south of the orchard: winepresses (85, 88, 93, 94), cupmarks (89, 97, 98), an elliptical basin (99) and a cistern with a square opening (87). Near these installations is an elliptical shaft (95; Fig. 10), which opens at the bottom to a blocked, irregularly shaped cavity, possibly a cistern or shaft tomb, which was not fully hewn on all of its sides. Other finds discovered include scattered sherds (82, 91), mostly from the Byzantine period; a rock-cut channel near an outcrop with a hewn cupmark (84); a cave opening, possibly of a hewn burial cave (102); field walls (83, 90, 92, 101, 104); a quarry (96) and a stone clearance heap (86).
A large cairn (105) was found. It is built of small stones with numerous pottery sherds between them. These include body fragments that seem ancient (Iron Age?); several are hand-made, possibly from the Chalcolithic period or Early Bronze Age. Near the cairn were field walls (107). A winepress, which quarrying was incomplete (100; Fig. 11) was surveyed: the outline of the treading floor was completed, but two undetached rectangular sections of rock remained within it. The collecting vat was hewn to the north of the treading floor, to which it is linked through a channel. A burial cave (103; Fig. 12) was also found. It includes a shaft with rock-cut steps descending to an opening at its bottom, where it becomes narrow. An elliptical installation (a lime kiln? 110; Fig. 13) was also surveyed. A square perforation links it to an elliptical pit of unknown depth. Its walls are covered with a thick layer of pink-white plaster. Lime kiln debris is scattered around the installation. Another lime kiln (?; 108) was discovered northwest of Installation 110; in its center is a pit blocked with stones (109). Also found in the vicinity were a rock-hewn elliptical pit (106) and long field walls built of a double row of fieldstones and a core of small stones (111; Fig. 14).
Remains of a what seems as a rural settlement (Kh. El-H
amir; 112–124; HA-ESI 117
) were found on a prominent hill: a square or rectangular building built of fieldstones preserved to the height of two or three courses (112; Fig. 15), and nearby stone heaps – probably the remains of additional buildings (114, 122–124). Numerous pottery sherds dating from the Iron Age 2 through the Byzantine period, and possibly from the Early Bronze Age as well, were found on the surface. On the rock outcrops near the settlement were rock-hewn cupmarks (115, 117, 118, 120, 121); a round rock-cut installation, possibly a small winepress (116); a straight rock-cutting, possibly a winepress treading floor (113); a square winepress (126) near a field wall; a stone clearance heap (119); and field walls (125, 132, 133). The concentration of rock-hewn installations (81–103) should probably be associated with this settlement, indicating its agricultural nature. The site most probably contained additional remains, but the dense overgrowth made it difficult to identify them.
Further along the route were several installations hewn in the hard limestone: a basin (127), near which a Byzantine sherd (Late Roman Red Ware) was found; a winepress (128) hewn on a rock surface; a deep rectangular rock-cutting (131), possibly a pool or a burial cave courtyard; a stone clearance heap (129); and several rock-hewn cupmarks (130).