Area A
A building that was probably used as a farmhouse lay east of the excavation area (Fig. 2). The area was crossed by an agricultural road (107; documented length c. 220 m, inner width c. 1.8 m), delimited by two field walls (F11; Fig. 3). The field walls (W101–W105, W108; Fig. 2) on either side of the Road 107 were built of fieldstones (average dimensions 0.5×0.6 m) and generally aligned north–south. A sounding (F10) was excavated next to Field Wall 101 and two courses of the wall were identified in it. The farming terraces (W106, W109–W113) were generally aligned east–west and based on the soundings (F15, F17, F18) excavated it seems that they were built of a single course of stones set on natural bedrock.
Three stone clearance heaps (F12–F14) were discovered. Clearance Heaps 12 and 14 (diam. c. 5 m), built of fieldstones (average dimensions 0.15×0.20 m), were on top of Field Wall 108. Clearance Heap 13 (6×10 m; Fig. 4) was enclosed within fieldstones (0.6×0.8 m) and contained small fieldstones (average size 0.1×0.1 m). The excavation of the clearance heaps yielded no potsherds.
The watchman’s hut (F16; inner diam. 3.5 m; Figs. 5, 6) was built of fieldstones (0.6×0.9 m), of which two–three courses were preserved. The entrance to the structure was probably set in its northern side. The hut, surrounded on its western side by a stone wall (diam. c. 10 m), was devoid of potsherds. Evidence of modern activity was visible in the area; piles of broken stones hewn from the bedrock (Fig. 7) were probably used as raw material for the limekilns scattered in the region. Signs of drilling in the bedrock (Fig. 8), for insertion of explosives to break up the bedrock, were identified.
Area B
A limekiln (F1; diam. c. 5 m, depth c. 2.6 m; Figs. 9–11) was partly hewn in limestone bedrock and partly built of fieldstones that were preserved five courses high.
Four farming terrace retaining walls (F2–F4, F6), built of fieldstones (c. 0.5×0.5 m) and set on the bedrock, were examined and a field wall (F5; length c. 50 m), built of fieldstones (0.5×0.5 m) in a north–south direction and used to divide agricultural plots, was explored.
A trench (width c. 1.5 m) was excavated in a stone clearance heap (F8; diam. c. 3 m), revealing it was built of fieldstones (0.15×0.15 m).
A rock-cutting (F9; 1.85×2.30 m, depth 0.8 m), probably modern and devoid of potsherds, was identified.
A wide agricultural road was exposed in the excavation; it was meant to allow two oncoming animals to pass each other while carrying farm produce from the fields. The field walls separated cultivation plots that might have belonged to several land owners. The farming terraces were intended to prevent soil erosion on the slopes and provide areas for growing crops. Stones that impeded cultivation were piled up on the sides of the fields or on bedrock outcrops so as to allow maximum utilization of the ground. The watchman’s hut was probably used to store tools or safeguard crops at harvest time. No potsherds that can aid in dating the agricultural activity were found; however, archaeological excavations conducted in the region, at Horbat Leved and Horbat Anusha, indicated that these two sites were inhabited in the Byzantine period (HA-ESI 117). The limekiln cannot be dated; based on the modern mining evidence in the region, probably from the British Mandate times, it is reasonable to assume that the limekiln operated in that period.