A circular rock-hewn burial cave containing 13 kokhim
from the third century CE was found on the eastern margins of the site; the roof of the cave was supported by a central column bearing a carving of a bull’s head. Another cave excavated along the east part of the tell had three rock-hewn arched arcosolia
and was dated to the third–fourth centuries CE (Badhi 1999
During 1973–1976, four excavation seasons conducted at the site revealed the remains of a rectangular fortress from the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age II; settlement remains from the second and third phases of that period; remnants of a settlement and a temple from the Late Bronze Age; remains of a large ‘four-room house’ from the Iron Age I–II; and a large structure, probably an administrative center, from the Persian period, which covered most of the tell and was surrounded by a casemate wall (Stern 1978
In 2006 and 2009, three excavations conducted along the north, east and southeast margins of the tell unearthed finds from the Iron Age II, and from the Persian and Roman periods, as well as three phases of the Roman-period High Aqueduct were identified (Shadman 2014
Remains of the High Aqueduct leading to Caesarea are still visible to the south of the tell, on the edge of Moshav Bet Hananya and c. 70 m south of the present excavation. The aqueduct and the tombs surrounding the tell are the only finds from the Roman period, as the tell itself was apparently not settled during this time.
Two excavation squares were opened on a north–south alignment in the area where the damaged occurred. The remains of a massive wall (W13; max. length 9.9 m, max. width 1.1 m; Fig. 2) were found c. 0.3 m below the surface. The wall was built of two rows, western and eastern, of large limestone blocks, some of which were partially dressed, and a core of fieldstones of various sizes. The eastern row was partially preserved in its southern part: large stones placed on their narrow side (Fig. 3). The western row was built of partially dressed stones of various sizes that were placed directly on the natural kurkar bedrock. The wall was preserved to a height of 3–4 courses.Additional stones projecting above the surface to the north of the excavation area and ashlars that were removed with mechanical equipment suggest that the wall was originally longer (Fig. 5).
A few potsherds were collected: jars dating mainly from the Iron Age, as well as the Persian (Fig. 4:1–3) and the Early Roman (Fig. 4:4, 5) periods. Most of the pottery retrieved near the wall foundations dates from the Early Roman period.
No floor or other walls were found abutting the wall. The wall’s proximity to the High Aqueduct to Caesarea suggests that it served as a retaining wall to prevent soil from slipping downhill toward the aqueduct.