Stratum IV. An accumulation of soil (L104) yielded pottery sherds from the Late Roman–Byzantine periods: a PRS3 bowl from the second half of the fourth to fifth centuries CE (Fig. 3:1), a krater from the fourth to seventh centuries CE (Fig. 3:2), Kefar Hananya bowls (Type 1D) from the mid-third to fourth centuries CE (Fig. 3:3, 4), a Kefar Hananya cooking pot (Type 4D) from the late second century to the mid-fourth century CE (Fig. 3:5) and a jar from the third to fourth centuries CE (Fig. 3:6). Fragments of a base belonging to a Byzantine-period glass bottle were also found.
Stratum III. A collapse of medium-sized limestone fieldstones covered the remains of a wall (W105; width 0.3 m; Fig. 4) built of one course of stones similar to those in the collapse. Pottery sherds from the Early Islamic period were found in the accumulation (L103) that abutted the wall on the south: glazed bowls (ninth–tenth centuries CE; Fig. 5:1, 2) and a base of a jug made of buff-colored clay (seventh–tenth centuries CE; Fig. 5:3).
Stratum II. An accumulation (L102; thickness c. 0.5 m) was excavated in the northern square, and two perpendicular walls (W107, W110; Fig. 6), possibly a corner of a building, were revealed in the southern square. The walls were constructed of limestone fieldstones preserved to a minimum height of five courses (0.7 m). An open courtyard was uncovered northwest of the building. No floor was found adjoining the walls, and it can only be inferred from the ceramics found in the accumulated soil that the building and the courtyard were used during the Mamluk–Crusader periods.
Fragments of pottery vessels dating from the twelfth–thirteenth centuries CE were found in this stratum. These included slipped bowls (Fig. 7:1–3), a monochrome bowl (Fig. 7:4) and a cooking pot (Fig. 7:5), all wheel-made, as well as hand-made vessels: bowls (Fig. 7:6, 7), kraters (Fig. 7:8, 9), jugs (Fig. 7:10, 11) and a lid (Fig. 7:12). Sherds from the thirteenth–fourteenth centuries CE were also found, including a krater (Fig. 8:5), a spout (Fig. 8:6) and a jar (Fig. 8:7), as well as wheel-made glazed bowls from the thirteenth–fifteenth centuries CE (Fig. 8:1–4).
Additional finds are a bronze coin from the fourth century CE (IAA 158795) and two glass finds from the Byzantine period: the base of a wineglass and the handle of a kohl double bottle. Animal bones found in a dump that was deposited in the open courtyard included animals that were not consumed—a dog and a donkey—alongside animals raised for food, such as cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, some of which bore signs of butchering and evidence of secondary use as bone objects.
Stratum I. Several walls, probably from the late Ottoman period, were discerned in a trench (Fig. 1: Section 1–1) dug during earthmoving work prior to the excavation. The construction in this layer may have penetrated Stratum II, but due to safety constraints no probe was conducted other than straightening the section. A glass bracelet dating to the Ottoman period was found on the surface.
The excavation revealed that the earliest presence at the site was in the Late Roman period. The site yielded wall remains belonging to a building from the Early Islamic period. The principal discovery in the excavation was the courtyard of a building from the Mamluk–Crusader periods; judging by the ceramic artifacts, it seems to have served as a rural dwelling. These finds draw a picture of the rural settlement in this part of Er-Reina during the Early Islamic and the Mamluk–Crusader periods.