Stratum 1. A wide wall (W110; preserved height 1.5 m, exposed length 10 m; Figs. 3–5), was exposed, narrow at the top (c. 0.5 m) and widening toward the foundations (c. 1.4 m). The wall was oriented northwest–southeast, constructed of medium and large fieldstones, and was supported on either side by deposits of brown soil (L102, L103, L105, L115). The accumulated deposits yielded pottery from several periods, the latest being the Byzantine period. The wall may have been used to demarcate plots of land. An elliptical tabun (L112; diam. 0.8 m; Fig. 5) made of coarse clay fired at a low temperature was situated next to the southern foundations of the wall.
A small number of MB II pottery sherds were found in the soil deposits on both sides of the wall, including a pithos rim (Fig 6:9), a jar with a folded-out rim with a ridge (Fig. 6:10), and many sherds from the Hellenistic, Early Roman and Byzantine periods.
Stratum 2. South of W10, a fill of sandy wadi-silt mixed with tiny river pebbles (L109; Fig. 7) was exposed. The fill, which sloped to the south, was cut by the wall and the tabun, and may be related to the architectural remains north of the excavation. The soil accumulation (L114) above Fill 109 yielded pottery sherds from the EB IA and several fragments of Hellenistic-period jars with folded-out rim (Fig. 6:11, 12). The jars provide a terminus post quem for the sandy fill.
. Below the fill of Stratum 2 was a thick accumulation of black clay (L113; Figs. 4, 5, 7), which contained sherds from the EB IA. A small probe (2.5 × 4.0 m) below this layer, uncovered an earthen floor that was laid over small fieldstones (L116; Figs. 5, 7). Flint tools, some animal bones and potsherds from the EB IA were found on the floor. Most of the sherds were slipped inside and out in shades of gray, red and red-brown. The types included gray burnished bowls (Fig. 6:1–3); a red burnished bowl (Fig. 6:4); a bowl slipped red-brown on the outside (Fig. 6:5); holemouth jars with rectangular rim defined by a ridge at its base (Fig. 6:6, 7); and a pithos with a red-brown slip, its thickened rim folded-out (Fig 6:8). Parallels to the assemblage were identified in previous excavations at Kafr Kanna (Covello-Paran 2013
; Permit No. A-7024), in Stratum 2 at Yiftah
’el (Braun 1997
:60–89) and in Stratum IV at ‘Afula (Gal and Covello-Paran 1996
The most significant stratum in the excavation—the EB IA stratum—indicates that the settlement of this period extended outside the presumed line of the city wall, at least 100 m south of the point where it was exposed. From the Hellenistic period, soil fill that contained pottery sherds was discovered. It was cut by a wide field wall and by a tabun dating to the Byzantine period.