Six layers of sediment (a3, b3, 4, a5, b5, 6) were exposed in the excavation. The complete stratigraphy, comprising all six layers, was only discovered in a section in Area F (Fig. 5). The identification of the sediment layers corresponds to the stratigraphy identified in the 2012 excavation (Greenbaum et al. 2014). Strata 1 and 2 were identified in the trial trenches of 2012, but were not discovered in the current excavation. The following list is a description of the strata from bottom to top.
1. Stratum a3: heavy black clay (thickness c. 0.5 m) with concentrations of bones and flint tools. This layer was only exposed in Area F. The interface with the overlying stratum (b3) is gradual.
2. Stratum b3: cracked, black-brown clay containing gypsum crystals. This layer contained most of the finds, which included an abundance of flint tools and animal bones. Their provenance was the interface with the layer above it. Stratum b3 was exposed in Areas B and F.
3. Stratum 4: red prismatic clay containing an abundance of developed and especially large gypsum crystals. Only a small number of finds comes from this layer. Stratum 4 was exposed in Areas B and E and in the section in Area F.
4. Stratum a5: massive gray cracked gley, with orange-yellow patches. Several flint items and animal bones were found in this layer, particularly at the interface with Stratum b5. The stratum was exposed in Areas A, B, C and E and in the section in Area F.
5. Stratum b5: gray clay containing high concentrations of limestone concretions. Flint tools and animal bones were found in the layer. It was exposed in Areas A and C and in the northern, western and eastern sections of the eastern lot.
6. Stratum 6: brown-red clay (thickness 1.2 m). The layer is cut by small gullies that, judging by the finds in them, date from the Chalcolithic to the Early Islamic period. These gullies severed Strata b5 and a5 in Areas A and C.
Area A (42 sq m) was situated c. 100 m southwest of the excavation area in 2009–2011. Strata b5 and a5, containing finds from the Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian culture), were exposed in the area. The top of Stratum, b5, which dates to the Upper Mousterian culture, was severed by a gully running in a north–south direction that was active during the Byzantine period. After removing the sediment beside the gully with a backhoe, a second, earlier gully that cut the layer was revealed, probably dating from the Chalcolithic period. Most of the finds were discovered in Stratum b5 and consist of fresh, sharp flint items in a variety of sizes, fragments of animal bones and teeth belonging to large herbivores. The flint assemblage from Stratum b5 is on the whole characterized by large primary items representing the initial stages of the knapping sequence. Attempts at a preliminary refitting studies produced several refitted aggregates of knapped flint utilizing the Levallois reduction technique (Fig. 6). Stratum a5 yielded fewer finds than the previous layer; nevertheless, a human molar was found in it.
Area B (45 sq m). Stratum b3 was exposed in this area. Large pieces of limestone, several flint items that were mainly abraded and patinated, animal bones, a stone anvil (Fig. 7) and a shell (Fig. 8) were discovered. In the middle of the area, a layer of well-preserved, fresh flint items was uncovered, which included Levallois points (Fig. 9) and 23 flakes and a core that were restored to a single reduction sequence. Several flint items and animal bones were found in the eastern part of the area. A concentration of five large, well-preserved flint items was found in the northeastern part of the area. In the southern part of the area was a cluster of five almost whole human leg bones. Lumps of ochre, mainly yellow and red, were found throughout the area.
Area C (65 sq m). Stratum b5, which is dated to the Middle Paleolithic period, was exposed. The layer was severed by a streambed running in a north–south direction, which divided the area into two separate sections, eastern and western. The finds within the streambed included flint items from the Middle Paleolithic period, as well as pottery sherds and a coin from the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods. Sparsely dispersed flint items and animal bones were also discovered.
Areas D and E (15 sq m and 42 sq m, respectively). Strata 5a and 4 were revealed in both areas. In Area E, an extremely sparse amount of lithic artifacts was found in brown-gray clay. Below these finds were animal bones and fresh flint items that were deposited in black clay
Area F. Large bones representing a variety of animals, including an auroch, fallow deer and gazelle were found in Stratum b3. Cut marks were noted on some of the animal bones, including the rib of a gazelle.
The finds from the ‘En Qashish excavation represent the remains of several Mousterian-culture campsites. The exposure of several superposed archaeological layers within a small area is not accidental and seems to indicate that people were drawn to the place during the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods. The principal activity at these sites was apparently related to hunting, as animal bones that bore cut marks and/or were broken by man were found in almost all of the layers. Evidence of other activities, such as knapping stone tools, was also found in all the layers, as these were part of the routine activity at sites of this type. Additional artifacts likely to shed light on a variety of activities were discovered in Stratum b3 in Area B: a cluster of human bones and several lumps of ochre and a shell. These finds suggest some unique or unusual activity. The thickness of the strata and the small amounts of finds in each of the layers are indcative of the short-lived occupations that took place at the site. It seems that these campsites were a recurring phenomenon, probably during the summer, when Nahal Qishon did not flood. A study of the origins of the flint from the 2009–2011 excavations at ‘En Qashish proposes that the flint utilized by these groups was brought from a more western location, in the vicinity of the Carmel (Ekshtain et al. 2014).