During April 2009, an archaeological survey was conducted in the middle part of Nahal Tavor (License No. S-109/2009; map ref. 23857–4444/72867–3297). The survey, undertaken on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority and at the initiative of the Drainage and Stream Authority of the Southern Jordan Region, was directed by N. Getzov (field photography and drawing of finds), with the assistance of A. Shapiro (GPS), B. Hana, O. Marder, H. Khalaily and K. Covello-Paran (surveying). Information on file in the ‘En Dor Archaeological Museum, courtesy of C. Cohen-Arnon, the museum’s director, as well as data provided by D. Arnon who was familiar with numerous sites before they were damaged by development work, assisted the surveyors in the fieldwork.
The surveyed section included the Nahal Ha-Shiv‘a stream channel from ‘En Zelef to its outlet in Nahal Tavor, and the Nahal Tavor channel from the Nahal Ha-Shiv‘a outlet to the ‘Basalt Mall’ south of Tel Rekhesh (Fig. 1), as well as the banks of the streams within 50 m of the streambed line. The aim of the survey was to check the state of preservation of the known sites, resurvey their location and identify new sites.
The region was included in previous surveys, among them a survey of water-powered installations in Israel (S. Avitzur. 1963. Survey of the Water Powered Installation in Israel. Tel Aviv); a site survey (N. Tzori. 1977. Nahalat Issachar. Jerusalem) and the Israel Archaeological Survey (Z. Gal. 1991. Map of Gazit ; 1998. Map of Har Tavor  and Map of ‘En Dor . Jerusalem). Eighteen sites, which are all known, were surveyed and in most instances the finds are consistent with the conclusions of the previous surveys. New information was only obtained at three sites.
‘En Zelef (Nahalat Issachar, Site 158; Map of Har Tavor , Site 71; map ref. 238464/732844; Fig. 2). On the upper part of the spur where the site is situated, a large quantity of flint debitage was found on a wide bedrock terrace (map ref. 238348/732845). Among the finds were two bladelet cores and a Helwan lunate, which are probably indicative of a Natufian settlement from the end of the Epipaleolithic period.
Horbat Zelef (Kh. El Mughaiyir; Nahalat Issachar, Site 158; Map of Har Tavor , Site 72; map ref. 238463/732710). Potsherds that dated to the Chalcolithic, Early Bronze Age IA, IB, Early Bronze Age II, Iron Age II and the Persian, Hellenistic and Byzantine periods were found in the previous surveys. It is now apparent that the site has also numerous potsherds dating to Early Bronze Age IIIA.
Nahal Shummar (Nahalat Issachar, Site 173; Map of Gazit , Site 7). The site extends along both sides of Nahal Tavor, at its confluence with Nahal Shummar. A scatter of flint implements was found along the stream’s southern bank in the previous surveys and in the current survey, a potsherd scattering was noted on the northern bank (map ref. 242467/729160). The potsherds should be dated to Early Bronze Age IIIA. During an antiquities inspection, while overseeing the installation of a water pipe at the site, the inspector M. Zou‘abi found a fragment of a basalt chalice adorned with four knob ornamentations (Fig. 3) that should probably be dated to the beginning of the Early Bronze Age.