‘Ein el-Hadaf (A; map ref. 214744/626752). A spring that flows on a slope facing the northwest (Fig. 2: 57). A pool for collecting the water was constructed at the spring’s outlet (Fig. 3) and channels were dug around the spring to convey water to the cultivation plots on the farming terraces lower down the slope. Modern houses were built near the spring and the area was intensely cultivated. It was therefore difficult to determine the exact location of the ancient settlement that existed alongside the spring. A few potsherds from the Iron Age and many more dating to the Early and Late Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods were found on the surface of the farming terraces around the spring.
A quarry located to the north of the spring contained fifty-two dressed stones (Figs. 2: 68; 4), including large building stones (0.5×0.6×2.0 m; Figs. 5, 6), columns, column bases and lintels (Fig. 7), as well as bedrock blocks whose stone dressing was incomplete. The style of the stone elements indicates the quarry should be ascribed to the Early Roman period, which is extremely rare in the vicinity of Jerusalem. Fragments of pottery vessels that dated to Iron Age II were found near the quarry.
Nahal Refa’im Sites [2] (B; map ref. 214994/627379). The antiquities documented on the slope included two structures (Fig. 2: 72), farming terraces in whose retaining walls ancient building stones were incorporated (Figs. 2: 125; 8), a rectangular watchman’s hut (Fig. 2: 131), rock-cuttings in bedrock (Fig. 2: 133) and a natural cave (Fig. 2: 149). A scattering of potsherds from the Hellenistic, Byzantine and Ottoman periods was discerned on the farming terraces.
Nahal Refa’im Sites [3] (C; map ref. 215043/627706). Rock-hewn installations, used in processing agricultural produce, and farming terraces were documented. A scattering of numerous potsherds was found on one of the terraces (Fig. 2: 138). Fragments of pottery vessels that dated to the Early Bronze Age, Iron Age II and the Hellenistic, Early and Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods were collected. It is possible that the potsherds were brought here with soil that was removed from the ruin in the upper part of the village, or from both banks of Nahal Refa’im.
Nahal Refa’im Sites [4] (D; map ref. 214967/627428). Remains of a building, rock-hewn installations, caves and numerous potsherds scattered across the surface, were documented around a quarry where building stones were hewn (Fig. 2: 73).
Nahal Refa’im Sites [5] (E; map ref. 215878/627185). The sites belonged to the remains of a ruin at the end of a spur (Fig. 2: 69); evidence of an illicit dig was visible on the surface. Among the antiquities documented in the area of the ruin were a rock-hewn pool (Figs. 2: 103; 9), a plastered pool (miqwe; Fig. 10), burial caves, one of which was adapted for use as a cistern (Fig. 11), a simple installation for extracting oil (bodeda; Fig. 12) and building stones.
The survey finds point to intensive cultivation of the farming terraces in the area that benefited from irrigation from the spring water. The village was founded further up the slope from the spring, but due to modern construction and cultivation – to the extent that altered the surface – it is difficult to locate the limits of the settlement in antiquity. Nevertheless, it is rather certain that the abundant perennial source of water at ‘Ein el-Hadaf attracted settlers from the third millennium BCE and perhaps even earlier, similar to the settlement pattern that is known at other sites along Nahal Refa’im. Installations for processing agricultural produce were hewn in bedrock outcrops and in places that were unsuitable for farming; some of the ancient installations continued to be used until the modern era.