Phase I (Fig. 1). A circular pottery kiln, built of mud bricks, was exposed in Square A2 (L109; preserved height c. 1 m; Fig. 2). The eastern end of the kiln was visible in the square’s eastern balk. The kiln was divided into a northern and southern cell, between which a ventilation channel that may have been meant to intensify the fire in the installation passed. Ceramic finds from the Byzantine period, including a jar fragment (Fig. 3:1), were discovered inside the kiln (L106).
Phase II (Figs. 1, 4). Refuse pits were exposed in the three squares and tombs, oriented east–west, were discovered near Squares A1 and A2; the tombs were not excavated. The refuse pits mostly contained numerous jar fragments from the Early Islamic period (Fig. 3:6–9). Two refuse pits (L103, L110) that covered the kiln and negated its use were exposed in Square A2; one (L104) was revealed in Square A1 and another (L113), which contained jar fragments, as well as pieces of terra-cotta pipes and mud bricks, was uncovered in Square A3. Three tombs (L107, L111, L112) were discovered in Square A1. Tomb 107 was a cist tomb (0.65×2.20 m; Fig. 5) dug in the hamra soil and covered with three dressed limestone slabs (0.60×0.65 m), in whose gaps fieldstones were inserted. Tomb 111 was also a cist tomb dug in the soil; only its long sides (northern side—preserved length 1.7 m, southern side—preserved length 0.8 m), which were built of coarsely dressed, medium-sized fieldstones, were discovered. A skull was found between the two sides in the eastern part of the tomb. Tomb 112 was not preserved, apart from a large concentration of human bones that indicates it was a tomb. Four tombs (L108, L114–116) were discovered in Square A2. Tomb 108 was a cist tomb (length 1.3 m), dug into the hamra and covered with three dressed stones (0.5×0.5 m). A notch was hewn in the bottom part of the middle stone, which was apparently a building stone in secondary use. Tomb 114 (exposed length 0.8 m) was discovered in the square’s northern balk. The tomb was covered with three limestone blocks (0.35×0.40 m) and fieldstones were lying nearby. Three dressed building stones surrounded by fieldstones were discovered in Tomb 115 (length 1.2 m); the middle stone was a column base in secondary use. Tomb 116 was exposed in the square’s western balk. Two coarsely dressed pieces of limestone (0.3×0.4 m) were discovered and several bones were found around them. A jar fragment (Fig. 3:10) that dated to the Early Islamic period was discovered near Tomb 116. The construction of the tombs and their orientation suggests they should probably be dated to the Early Islamic period.
Area B (Fig. 6)
A stratum that consisted of medium-sized fieldstones, pieces of plaster, mud bricks and potsherds was revealed (L200). This stratum covered a layer of collapse, which contained large dressed building stones (L202) that were probably the remains of a ruinous building. The ceramic finds in the square dated to the Byzantine period and included bowls (Fig. 3:2), kraters (Fig. 3:3), cooking vessels (Fig. 3:4, 5) and roof tiles.
A built limekiln that was well preserved and stood to a height of seven courses (upper diam. 3.5 m, bottom diam. 3 m, depth 2.3 m; Figs. 7, 8) was exposed south of these layers. The kiln was built of dressed limestone (0.4×0.5 m). Wadi pebbles were placed between and above the stones of the upper course. The diameter of the kiln tapered toward the bottom. Two main layers were exposed in the kiln. The layer of soil in the upper part contained building stones, mud bricks, potsherds from the Early Islamic period and roof tiles (L206); these may have been discarded in the kiln after it was no longer in use and had become a refuse pit. A layer of ash (L208; thickness 0.3 m) was in the bottom part of the kiln. No other ash layers were exposed and therefore it seems that the kiln was only used once. Sterile soil was found below the layer of ash. It is unclear when the kiln was built, but it seems to have gone out of use in the Early Islamic period.
The site was apparently part of an extensive industrial area in the Byzantine period. It is not clear when this region ceased to be used, but its western part functioned as a cemetery in the Early Islamic period.