A drainage channel (L122; min. length 3.7 m, width 0.8 m, min. depth 0.5 m) with an arched cover, was exposed c. 4 m below surface (Figs. 1: Section 1-1; 2). Due to safety precautions, only the upper part of the channel was excavated to about half of its depth. Similar drainage channels were discovered in a number of excavations in the Old City (E. Stern, per. comm.). The channel may have belonged to a vaulted building (L125; Fig. 1: Section 3-3) whose roof survived in the south. Fragments of pottery vessels that dated to the twelfth century CE were found on a stone pavement (L114) that was situated atop the drainage channel covering. The finds inside the channel were Hellenistic, alongside a few Crusader potsherds, including a bowl coated with an alkali glaze (Fig. 3:1) and an amphora (Fig. 3:2).
A wall (W7; min height 1.5 m; Fig. 4) discovered in the northwestern corner was probably a foundation, set on Pavement 114; only its southern side was exposed. The recovered potsherds dated to the twelfth century CE and originated in the region of the Aegean Sea, including a bowl coated with an alkali glaze (Fig. 3:3) and an amphora (Fig. 3:4).
A massive wall (W6; width 1.5–1.6 m, height 3 m; Fig. 5), aligned north–south and preserved thirteen courses high, was exposed. Wall 6 penetrated into the buildings of Strata V and IV and the western side of its foundation was constructed on the edge of the drainage channel from Stratum V, thus negating the use of both the channel and W7. A corner at the southern end of W6 was formed with a wall (W4), which could clearly be seen in the section. No remains of a floor abutting W4 were discerned and its foundation was probably very deep (in excess of 2.5 m)—a common phenomenon known in the Crusader construction of ‘Akko (E. Stern, per. comm.).
The fill between the base and top of W6 contained stone elements, including two large columns that apparently point to the public nature of the structure to which the wall belonged, and three marble fragments that were probably used for paving. A rich assemblage of mostly broken pottery vessels was discovered in two levels. Most of the potsherds (c. 80%) were recovered from the upper part of the fill and included glazed bowls, partly locally produced (Fig. 3:5–7), partly imported from the Aegean Sea and decorated with incising and shades of yellowish green glaze (Fig. 3:8, 9), a Soft Paste Ware type bowl (Fig. 3:10), cooking vessels (Fig. 3:11, 12), jars, amphorae imported from the Aegean Sea and very common to the eastern Mediterranean basin (Fig. 3:13) and jugs dating to the twelfth–thirteenth centuries CE.
The bottom level (c. 2.0–2.2 m below upper level, 0.6–0.8 m above base of wall) contained amphorae from the Hellenistic period, a few fragments of vessels from the Roman period, bowls and jars from the Byzantine period, including a LRC-type bowl (Fig. 3:14) and a few potsherds from the Abbasid and Fatimid periods, as well as two coins: one (L117; IAA 115437) that was struck in ‘Akko and dates to the reign of the emperor Helius Gablus (218–222 CE) and the other (L112; IAA 115436) is a Byzantine half-follis that dates to the second half of the sixth century CE. It seems that these ex-situ coins originated from earlier strata that were penetrated by the Crusader-period walls.
A narrower wall (W5; length 7.4 m, width 0.45 m), built of two rows of stones, was constructed atop the eastern part of W6; the southern continuation of this wall was built of large stones (Fig. 1: Sections 2-2, 3-3; see Fig. 5). Another wall (W119) that was built in an identical manner and of the same width adjoined the eastern side of W5, probably to thicken it. Pottery vessels from the Crusader period, such as a coarse handmade bowl coated with an alkali glaze (Fig. 3:15), which first appeared in the twelfth century CE and continued into the thirteenth century CE, were exposed only in this stratum, east and west of W5.
A fragmented section of a massive wall (W1; width 2 m, height 0.65 m), whose foundation courses rested against W5 and severed the top of Vault 125 (Figs. 1: Sections 2-2, 3-3; 6), was exposed in the south of the area. Due to the limited extent of the excavation, it was difficult to determine the function of Wall 1, yet its width may indicate that it served as part of a fortification or an enclosure wall.
The pottery vessels included green and yellow glazed bowls of Aegean provenance (Fig. 6:16, 17) and a locally produced krater decorated with combing (Fig. 6:18), all dating to the Crusader period (twelfth–thirteenth centuries CE).
Albeit the limited excavation area, the finds were especially abundant and included stone elements, pottery vessels, glass, metallic and bone artifacts, coins, animal bones and shells.
Sixty-four fragments of glass vessels were discovered, 40 of which were identified. The earliest are dated to the Late Byzantine period and mostly include two different types of wine glasses with delicate thin stems, one with a hollow base ring (Fig. 7:1) and the other with a small and relatively fine solid base (Fig. 7:2). A number of rims that are attributed to bottles were found; some are folded in and others are decorated with glass trails around the rim or the neck. A trefoil rim fragment of a jug or a juglet was discovered, as well as a solid beaded stem lamp and a fragment of a rectangular window pane that also dated to the end of the Byzantine or the beginning of the Umayyad periods. The only glass fragment that dated to the Abbasid period belonged to a shallow cylindrical bowl with an upright wall and a flat base (Fig. 7:3).
The Crusader period is represented by a number of fragments of typical vessels, including poorly preserved bottles and beakers. Noteworthy among them is a fragment of a raised trumpet-base, made of a glass blob that was affixed to the bottom of the vessel, as well as a poorly preserved fragment adorned with a horizontal red stripe between two thin gold-colored stripes (Fig. 7:4). The latter represents a large group of vessels, decorated with enamel colors, mostly red and gold, whose fragments were found in contexts of the thirteenth century CE in different excavations in ‘Akko, e.g., Ha-Abirim Parking Lot (ESI 20:11*–16*). Based on the shape of the fragment and its diameter, it may be the neck of a large bottle or part of a tall, narrow glass beaker.
Several pieces of glass furnace waste were found, including a fragment of dull glass that apparently was not fully vitrified (Fig. 7:5), a piece of fine quality glass affixed to limestone debris from the furnace bottom (Fig. 7:6) and a single fragment of blowing debris (moil).The shade of the glass indicates that it preceded the Islamic periods and should probably be dated to the Byzantine or Late Byzantine period.
The bone object, which was prepared on a lathe, dates to the Byzantine–Early Islamic periods and was probably used as a furniture mount or the handle of a tool (Fig. 7:7).
The metal artifacts included mostly nails and chisel remains. The three shells are characteristic of the Mediterranean shoreline.
Considerable amounts of animal remains were found, mostly recovered from the upper level of the building in Stratum III. Apart from two ankle bones that were sometimes used as gaming pieces and a few cattle teeth, the remains belong to Capra/Ovis and include mostly shoulder, pelvis, leg bones and teeth. Based on these findings it can be assumed that the meat component of the population’s diet consisted mostly of sheep and goat.
According to the Marino Sanudo map (1250 CE), the German Quarter, which was inhabited by the Teutonic Order and into which the Hospitaller Order expanded, was located in the northeastern part of the Crusader city, where the excavation area was opened. The buildings that were dated to the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth centuries CE were probably used by the Teutonic Order, prior to its departure to Montfort at the beginning of the thirteenth century CE.