Section 1
The section is located along a southern slope, which was divided into two sub-sections, Area A in the east and Area B in the west, due to its size.
Area A. Remains of a quarry, terraces and installations were exposed.
The quarry (L107; central map ref. 198911/644706; 25×65 m; Fig. 2) extended in an east–west direction along limestone bedrock. South and east of the quarry was a concentration of heaps (17×50 m; height c. 2 m), comprising nari stones (average size 0.4×0.5 m) and aligned east–west. Two similar but smaller quarries were discovered c. 50 m west of Quarry 107. It seems that the area was intensively quarried for stones that were probably used in the manufacture of lime. Limekilns were documented c. 1 km west of the excavation area in a preliminary survey.
The remains of two field walls were examined c. 30 m east of Quarry 107. One wall (W111; length 35 m, width 0.6 m, height 0.4 m; Fig. 3), aligned north–south, was built of medium and large nari stones that were set on the bedrock and preserved five courses high. Perpendicular to it was a similar wall (W112; length 4 m, width 0.6 m, height 0.75 m), preserved ten courses high.
Five round installations built of small fieldstones were discovered in the eastern part of the area. They were apparently used to store agricultural produce; three of them were examined (Table 1).
Table 1. Round Installations.
Map reference
Outer/inner diameter
1.2/0.4 m
0.1 m
Small part of a mat
0.8/0.5 m
0.25 m
0.9/0.5 m
5 cm
Two non-diagnostic potsherds
The area was divided into twenty secondary areas where more than 5,200 flint artifacts were collected. Studying the frequency of components that make up the flint repertoire (Table 2) shows that it is mostly composed of lumps or pieces of natural flint blocks that split off naturally. The high frequency stems from the fact that the source of the raw material is located at the site and most of it is exposed between layers of limestone, qirton and nari. However, a sorting of the repertoire indicates that some of the raw material was utilized by man, especially the flint from the Mesas Formation, albeit not systematically. It is quite possible that the utilization of this flint type was a local phenomenon and does not point to its utilization for everyday needs at the settlement sites.
Cores are few; more than 95% are flake cores and the rest are bladelet cores. A similar breakdown was noted in the composition of the debitage—flakes are common whereas blades and bladelets are sparse. The knapping technology is not planned and essentially, it consists of broad flakes produced from a number of opposing striking platforms (Fig. 4:1, 2). The products were used mostly for preparing flake tools; the ratio between flake and blade tools (15:1) corroborates this contention. 

Table 2. Breakdown of the Flint Repertoire
Core Trimming elements
Other debitage
The tools are divided between retouched (9; Fig. 5:1, 2), notched and denticulated flakes (6; Fig. 5:3), awls (2) and one irregularly retouched blade (Fig. 5:4). No “fossil directeur” tools that can be used to identify a specific period were exposed. However, the discovery of some items defined as bifacial debitage (Fig. 4:3) and the proximity of the repertoire’s location to sites that specialize in the production of bifacial tools and are dated to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period (HA-ESI 113:69*–70*, HA-ESI 117), date the time of the flint knapping to the same period.

Area B. Three watchman’s huts, a field wall and a stone clearance heap were excavated.
The circular watchman’s huts were built of medium and large roughly hewn stones that were preserved one–two courses high (Table 3). Watchman’s Hut 102 was founded on fill consisting of brown soil and small fieldstones; Watchman’s Huts 100 and 104 were founded on leveled bedrock.A bedrock-hewn step was exposed beneath Watchman’s Hut 100 (Fig. 6:1); it was probably utilized previously as a quarry.Fieldstones were consolidated into a stone clearance heap (height 0.9 m) above bedrock and within Watchman’s Hut 100. A round cupmark (diam. 0.55 m) was hewn north of Watchman’s Hut 104.
Table 3. Watchman’s huts
Watchman’s hut
Map reference
Inner/outer diameter
Stone dimensions
4.5/6.0 m
0.65 m
0.6×1.0 m
2.5/4.0 m
0.66 m
0.7×1.1 m
c. 3.8 m
1 course
0.5×0.8 m
The wall (W105; min. length 4 m, width 1 m; Fig. 6:2) was built of two rows of dressed stones (average size 0.3×0.5 m) covered with small and medium-sized fieldstones and served as part of an enclosure wall that delimited a cultivation plot. The stone clearance heap (L106; map ref. 198685/644709; diam. 7 m, height 1.4 m; Fig. 6:2), built of small and medium fieldstones, had partly covered W105 and thus, it postdated the wall.
Section 2
One square was excavated and a section of a terrace wall (W114; Fig. 6:3), oriented northwest-southeast, was exposed. The wall was built of a row of large fieldstones (average size 0.5×1.2 m) placed on bedrock.
The ceramic finds included only a jar fragment discovered in Section 1 and a bowl rim in Section 2. These two potsherds are from the Roman period, but insufficient for dating the rest of the remains.