Some 15,000 flint items were uncovered at the site; most were irregular shaped chunks or raw flint. A preliminary examination of numerous flint items in all of the excavation squares from Stratum 2 revealed an assortment of cores, flakes and tools that were produced using the Levallois technique (Figs. 4, 5: 1, 2), along with bladelet cores (Fig. 6) and tools characteristic of later periods, such as diagonal truncations (Fig. 5:3) and carinated scrapers (Fig. 5:4). The vast majority of items are covered with patina and bear signs of abrasion caused by the tumbling; some of the Levallois items are especially worn.
For the purpose of technological-typological classification, a particular assemblage from square C5 was chosev for scrutiny. This assemblage includes 3,405 unidentified chunks, 160 flakes that are smaller than 1.5 cm (chips) and 995 knapped items, among them 137 (13.8%) primary elements (cortex covers 50% or more of the item’s surface), 30 (3%) naturally-backed knives, 310 (31.1%) flakes, 29 (2.9%) Levallois flakes, 10 (1%) blades, 4 (0.4%) Levallois blades, 9 (0.9%) bladelets, 124 (12.5%) cores, 14 (1.4%) Levallois cores, 20 (2.0%) bladelet cores, 149 (14.9%) core debitage items, and 159 (16.0%) tools. Included among the bladelet cores are pyramidal cores with a single striking platform and cores that were produced on flakes, some of which can be defined carinated scrapers. The group of tools includes 64 retouched flakes (40.2% of the tools), 17 (10.7%) retouched Levallois flakes, 24 (15.1%) retouched primary elements, 13 (8.2%) notches/denticulates, 12 (7.5%) retouched core debitage, 11 (6.9%) retouched blades, 5 (3.1%) scrapers, 4 (2.5%) side-scrapers, 3 (1.9%) burins, 2 (1.2%) microliths and 1 truncation (0.6%).
The typological division and especially the detailed technological classification show an almost equal presence of two distinct industries, representing two prehistoric periods. This coincides with the first impression gleaned from the initial examination of the flint items. The items produced using the Levallois technique, including flakes, cores and blades (4.7% of the assemblage), represent the Middle Paleolithic period (250,000–47,000 YBP), while the bladelet industry, including cores and bladelets (2.9% of the assemblage) represents later periods, among them the Upper Paleolithic period (47,000–20,000 YBP) and the Epi-Paleolithic period (20,000–10,000 YBP).
The distinction between the Upper Paleolithic and the Epi-Paleolithic, as well as between the different cultures in each of the periods is based on morphological and technological characteristics of microlithic tools. Only one diagnostic microlith, trapeze/rectangle, characteristic of the Middle Epipaleolithic Geometric Kebaran culture, was found in one of the trial trenches; two more nicroliths in the investigated assemblage are non-diagnostic retouched bladelets. Though virtually no diagnostic items that can be used to identify the period in which the bladelet cores were utilized, were discovered. The similarity of some of the bladelet cores to carinated scrapers, common in the Upper Paleolithic period, was noted. The possibility that the bladelet cores in the assemblage represent both periods—the Upper Paleolithic period and the Epi-Paleolithic period—is also viable.
The presence of flint items from the Middle Paleolithic and later periods in the same level clearly shows that the finds in the excavation are not in situ. Apparently because the site is located in the eastuary of a stream running down the slope of Mount Carmel, items must have washed down from their original position over the years and re-deposited at their present location. Moreover, from the excavations that were conducted in 2011 northeast of the current excavation area, it turns out that the alluvial fan, that contained Levallois items alongside bladelet cores, extends hundreds of meters further west in the direction of Tel Qashish.
Sources of flint that is similar to that discovered during the excavation (Fig. 7), were spotted during a limited survey performed at the top of the slope, above the excavation area. A karstic cave with a terrace that might have been utilized in prehistoric periods was located close to these sources of flint (Fig. 8).