The walls of the insulae were built with yellowish light brown, gray-black and dark brown mud bricks containing white lumps (kurkar?). Rows of stones were sometimes placed between the layers of bricks to stabilize them. The wall foundations were constructed of various-sized kurkar stones; they were exposed mainly in the corners of the insulae. Parts of the insulae were erected above ancient pits, where clay had probably been extracted to make the bricks. The floors of the rooms were made of brick material deposited on leveled kurkar or of clay mixed with kurkar. A brick pavement was also discovered in the insula in Area A. A leveled street (St1; width 4.6 m) was located between the two insulae.
Area A. An insula (c. 700 sq m; Fig. 4) comprised two adjacent units of rooms and courtyards. Three rooms (A8, A10, A12) and three large courtyards (A1–A3) were revealed in the southern unit. A small room (A9) and an oven were discovered in Courtyard A2. In the northern unit, three rooms (A4–A6) were arranged in a row surrounded by three small courtyards (A7a, A7b, A11; Fig. 5). Nine tabuns of different sizes and shapes were discovered in these courtyards. Most of the tabuns were well-preserved. Ash from various plants was discovered in some of them. Several localized construction changes were implemented in the insula, including blocked doorways, repaired walls, raised floor levels and blocked tabuns. Fragments of pottery vessels dating from the Hellenistic period were found in the rooms and courtyards of the insula, including bowls, casseroles, amphorae, jars, juglets and a few lamp fragments, in addition to coins, basalt grinding stones and bones.
Area B. An insula (c. 470 sq m; Fig. 6) consisting of a central courtyard (B1) surrounded by eleven rooms (B2–B11, B14) and a corridor (B12) was exposed. Part of another courtyard (B13) was uncovered east of Rooms B10 and B11. Corridor B12 led from the street (St1) to Courtyard B1. Another opening that connected the insula to the street was revealed in Room B4. Five tabuns and ovens were discovered in Courtyard B1. No rooms were found south of this courtyard, possibly because of the large amounts of smoke that would have been blown in that direction from the tabuns and ovens. Other tabuns were discovered in Rooms B4 and B5 and in Courtyard B13. Secondary construction phases were identified in the insula. These included the blocking of many of the doorways and the openings from the street, as well as the raising of floor levels in several of the rooms. Part of a street or alley (St2) was exposed west of these building complex.
Pottery sherds from the insula dating from the Hellenistic period were similar to those found in the insula in Area A. Other artifacts recovered from Area B included coins, grinding stones, mainly of basalt, and a square lead weight (Fig. 7) that may have been used in commerce. Numerous bones, including the remains of pigs, were discovered near one of the ovens in the southwestern part of Courtyard B1.
Above the collapse of the two insulae were accumulations of sand. Within this accumulation was a refuse pit dating from the Late Ottoman period, containing fragments of pottery vessels and glassware from the Late Roman, Byzantine, Early Islamic and Mamluk periods. Pottery vessels ascribed to the Middle Bronze Age II were found in the fill of mudbrick material excavated in Courtyard B1.
Area C. A round well (depth c. 38 m; Fig. 8) was exposed c. 20 m east of Insula A; a laser device was used to measure the depth of the sand blocking the well. It was apparently located outside the settlement, as no structures were discovered to its east. The well was built of roughly hewn kurkar stones. Its stone mouth was almost square (2.6 × 3.2 m). It was sealed with a vault of roughly hewn stones, and was coated with plaster that contained shells. This well does not appear on maps from the time of the British Mandate. Numerous fragments of pottery vessels dating solely from the Hellenistic period were discovered near the well, suggesting that the installation was used only by the settlement that existed during that period.
The building materials and construction method employed in both insulae were similar. The complexes are larger than the insulae revealed in the previous excavation at the site. The insulae and the two adjacent streets are apparently part of the settlement’s Hippodamian plan, which required advanced planning and considerable investment.