Stratum III
The stratum was identified only in Sq K1. A wall (W106), built of kurkar ashlars, was preserved to the height of three courses above two stepped foundation courses (Fig. 3). The wall was abutted by a floor (L139; 5.08 m above sea level) made of crushed kurkar (10 cm thick) with a bedding of brown soil and organic material; it contained a few small, unidentified potsherds.
Stratum II
Remains of four buildings, aligned north–south (see Fig. 2), were unearthed from the Crusader period.
Building 1. The building’s southwest corner (Sq K1) was constructed of kurkar ashlar stones, a style typical to ʻAkko. Wall 106, first built in Stratum III, continued to be used in this stratum and was abutted on the east by a wall (W121; Figs. 3, 4) with an entrance threshold. The two walls enclosed a courtyard paved with kurkar stones (L147), which was accessed via a step in the opening in W121. A burnt layer (L127), containing stones that had tumbled from the walls, potsherds dating from the thirteenth century CE, iron nails and a coin dating from 1192–1197 CE (Table 1:2), was found above the floor. A fourth-century CE coin was found in a crack between the paving stones (Table 1:1).
Building 2. A staircase (L114; Fig. 3: Section 2–2) unearthed in Sq K2 comprised 4–5 preserved steps. The steps bear traces of paving, which did not survive (Fig. 5). A layer of sand on the third step yielded a coin dating from 1229–1240 CE (Table 1:3).
Building 3. A very small section of the northwest corner of a building was found in Sq K3. A shaft (L134; depth 3 m)—probably leading into a cistern—was uncovered between two walls of the building (W129, W130; Fig. 3: Section 3–3). The upper part of the shaft was empty, and its lower part contained deposits, but these were not excavated. A layer of medium-sized kurkar stones (L133) found in a layer of sand west of W129 had probably collapsed from the building.
Building 4. A wall (W109; Fig. 6) unearthed in Sq K4 was flanked by two rooms on each side. A plastered vault, whose roof was partially destroyed, was exposed in the southeast room (L149); it probably served for water storage (Fig. 6: Section 1–1). The southeastern room was only partially uncovered due to safety precautions; it contained an accumulation and collapsed stones. A brick floor unearthed in the northwest room (L148) abutted a plastered socle extending along the three exposed walls of the room. Despite the thick burnt layer found in the building, the floor, the socle and the plastered walls were well preserved (Fig. 7). A cesspit (L145) in the west corner was found to be empty.
Sections of wall-tops (W128, W143) and a layer of kurkar stones (W144), probably part of a collapse, were found in Sqs K5 and K6 (Fig. 8). The remains were covered with a layer of sand containing Stratum I remains.
Table 1. The Coins
Date of coin
Constantine I
Henry of Champagne
Silver alloy
Anon. (probably Balian)
Stratum I
Two water channels from the Ottoman period were excavated. 

Channel 1 (W117) was unearthed in the east part of the excavation area. It was aligned from northwest to southeast over a bedding of sand (L122). The channel was made of reddish clay containing limestone chips and broken kurkar stones. The channel, which sloped to the southeast, yielded segments of clay pipes.
Channel 2 (W119; Fig. 9) cuts into the west end of Channel 1 and postdates it. The channel was constructed of fieldstones and bonding material and was covered with large stone slabs. Like Channel 1, Sand layer 122 served as its bedding, and it was covered with deposits comprising brown soil mixed with sand (L118, L120; Fig. 8: Section 1–1) and sand mixed with modern debris (L115). Plaster traces were found on the channel walls.
The Finds
A fragment of an Early Islamic bowl (Fig. 10:1) was found on the surface.
Stratum II, dated to the Crusader period,yielded pottery from the Crusader buildings dating mainly from the thirteenth century CE and characteristic of ʻAkko, with some unglazed vessels. Among them were an ʻAkko Bowl (Fig. 10:2), an Apulian bowl (Fig. 10:3), a glazed Proto-Maiolica bowl from Sicily (Fig. 10:4), a glazed Roulette Ware bowl from Venice (Fig. 10:5), a cooking pot (Fig. 10:6), cups (Fig. 10:7, 8) made of typical cooking-pot type fabric and an ʻAkko Ware jar (Fig. 10:9).
Stratum I, dated to the Ottoman period, yielded a jug (Fig. 10:10), two clay tobacco pipes (Fig. 10:11, 12) and a clay water pipe (Fig. 10:13).
In addition to pottery vessels, the site yielded several fragments of glass. Most are from round windows, and one fragment belonged to a jar. All seem to date from the Crusader period, except for one rim that is apparently earlier.
The excavation uncovered dwellings belonging to the thirteenth-century CE residential quarter, which was extensively excavated in the past; their architecture resembles that of the previously uncovered remains. The walls of the unearthed buildings were constructed of kurkar blocks and plastered.
The thick burnt layer that covered the floors of the Crusader-period buildings contained potsherds, marble and plaster, iron nails and a Crusader coin, confirming the historical sources concerning the fate of
ʻAkko in 1291 CE, when it was conquered by the Mamluks.
The collapsed building debris was covered with a layer of clean beach sand, indicating that the city was abandoned from the Mamluk period until the mid-eighteenth century CE. 
Overlying the layers of sand were water channels whose alignment indicates a possible connection to a nearby reservoir, found to the north of the excavation and to the
ʻAkko aqueduct, which lies approximately 10 m away. These were probably irrigation channels that served gardens and farm plots documented in this area during the Ottoman period.