Chalcolithic Period. The remains from this period were discovered mainly in the western part of the excavation area. A pit (L108; diam. 1.7 m; Fig. 2) dug into virgin clay contained an accumulation of brown soil, yielding potsherds characteristic of the Late Chalcolithic period: V-shaped bowls, holemouths, jars, small jars with a red “lipstick” decoration and churns, all typical of a domestic assemblage. In addition, animal bones and flint flakes were found.
Middle Bronze Age IIA. Three pit graves dug into clay (T104, T105, T115) were discovered in the western part of the excavation area.
No clear signs of the outline of Tomb 104 could be discerned. Inside the grave was a single anatomically-articulated interment consisting of an individual aligned in a northwest–southeast direction, with the head toward the south and the lower limbs flexed. The skeleton was very poorly preserved. Part of the deceased’s upper and lower limbs and part of the cranium survived. The individual was estimated to be 30–40 years of age; its sex could not be determined. Two bowls, one inside the other, were placed northwest of the limbs; the upper vessel contained the remains of animal bones. One jar was discovered northeast of the limbs, and another jar was found near the head.
The eastern part of Tomb 105 was lined with firmly compacted brown soil. The position of the deceased was identical to that of the individual in Tomb 104; this skeleton was also poorly preserved. The deceased was a male estimated to be 30–40 years of age. A jar with a juglet inside it was placed northwest of the limbs. An open bowl was placed beneath the lower limbs. Another juglet was placed near the right hand.
The outline of T115 was also difficult to discern. The deceased, which was positioned identically to those interred in Tombs 104 and 105, was estimated to be 30–40 years of age; its sex could not be determined. Several pottery vessels were arranged around the deceased: to its west, placed from north to south, were a jar, a small bowl, a large bowl and a jar; a deep red-burnished bowl was placed above the head; and a jug was placed near the upper limbs.
Byzantine Period. Remains of a building were discovered in the eastern part of the excavation area. Only the wall foundations were preserved. They were constructed of dressed stones and small and medium-sized, roughly-hewn stones, without mortar. The architectural remains extended beyond the limits of the excavation. Bag-shaped jars were discovered north of the wall remains. Potsherds typical of the Byzantine period were collected in the soil accumulations next to and above the building foundations. Of special interest is a fragment of an LRC bowl decorated with the image of a man grasping a spear (Fig. 3).
Remains dating to the Chalcolithic, Middle Bronze IIA and Byzantine periods were revealed in the excavation. Inside a Chalcolithic period pit was a ceramic assemblage typical of a household, although settlement remains from this period have yet to be found in Yehud. In the Middle Bronze Age IIA, the site served as a burial ground. The tombs that were discovered were part of a necropolis which was excavated in previous years. In these prior excavations, the tombs were found concentrated in clusters. In the current excavation, the three tombs were found together within a small area. The distribution of the groups of graves might indicate family burials. During the Byzantine period the site became a residential area; the remains of the building discovered in the excavation were part of the extensive construction and development of Yehud that occurred during this period.