Square E (Fig. 2)
A pillar (W109; 1.1×1.4 m, height 1.1 m) and part of a vault (W108; Fig. 3) that abutted it were exposed in the southwestern corner of the square. The vault was built of fieldstones (stone dimensions 0.3×0.5 m), without bonding material. The accumulations at the foot of the vault (L100) contained animal bones and an assortment of potsherds. As the foundations of the structure were not excavated, it is not possible to determine its construction date.
Square W (Fig. 4)
A wall (W106) built of one course of poorly preserved fieldstones was exposed in the northwestern corner of the square. This wall—the earliest architectural element in the square—was not related to the architectural remains in the square and its top was c. 0.4 m lower than the other elements.
A wall (W105; length 3.8 m, width 0.8 m, height 1 m) that had survived three courses high was discovered in the middle of the square. It was built of medium-sized fieldstones (0.3×0.5 m) that were dressed on the southern side of the wall, which was abutted by a gray plaster floor (L101).
The corner of a building (W111; western side length 0.75 m, height 0.2 m; northern side length 0.5 m, height 1 m), built of ashlars and preserved two plastered courses high, was uncovered north of W105. Two plaster floors, an upper one (L120; elevation 48.54 m above sea level) and a lower floor (L103; elevation 47.9 m above sea level; Fig. 5), abutted W111.
The dressed side of a wall (W107; 0.5×1.2 m, height 1.1 m) that adjoined W105 and formed a corner with it was exposed in the southwestern corner of the square. Wall 107 was probably modern and its corner with W105 attests to the later use of the ancient wall.
The datable ceramic finds recovered from the base of W105 indicate that the wall was connected to most of the floor levels exposed in the square and it probably dated to the Early Ottoman period. Wall 106 was the earliest wall in the square; although its date can not be determined, it has certainly predated W105. Wall 111 was built after W105, although the finds discovered beneath the floors that abutted it show they were used contemporaneously and W111 may be a repair of W105. Wall 107 probably dates to the modern era.
Pottery from the Crusader, Mamluk and Ottoman periods was discovered in both squares. The Crusader-period vessels included a bowl (Fig. 6:1) and a cooking pot (Fig. 6:2); the Mamluk pottery consisted of bowls (Fig. 6:3–10), some of which are slipped (Fig. 6:3–6) and one is a glazed Celadon bowl imported from China (Fig. 6:10), as well as a cooking pot (Fig. 6:11) and two jugs (Fig. 6:12, 13); and the Ottoman-period pottery included bowls (Fig. 7:1–5), the one in Fig. 7:5 is decorated with a green–yellow glaze that is common to Ramla in the period, kraters (Fig. 7:6, 7), a cooking pot (Fig. 7:8) and jugs (Fig. 7:9–12). A fragment of a water pipe (Fig. 7:13), which was used to reinforce construction in the vaults during the Ottoman period, was discovered. To this day, one can see similar terracotta water pipes incorporated in the cross vaults in the Old City of Ramla. An Ottoman smoking pipe adorned with a grape leaf was also found (Fig. 7:14).
Most of the Ottoman ceramics is dated to the fifteenth–sixteenth centuries CE.
The exposed architectural elements consisted of walls, plaster floors, the remains of a vault and a pillar. The ceramic artifacts date the remains from the Crusader until the Ottoman periods. In addition, the exposed modern construction was integrated into the earlier construction. As the site was not fully excavated, there are no unequivocal conclusions regarding the function of the uncovered architectural elements. A subsequent excavation (License No. B-278/2003) may possibly shed further light on the finds and their use.