Square 1 (Figs. 2, 3)
The square was excavated to a depth of 0.8 m (68.27 m above sea level; hereafter, asl) and three floors were exposed: the first and upper one was at the elevation of surface (69.07 m asl), the second was east of it (68.77 m asl) and the third extended to the south (L1; 68.27 m asl). The upper floor was composed of irregular-shaped stones, whereas the two other floors consisted of pounded earth mixed with inclusions of kurkar and soft limestone. The absence of architectural elements to which the floors could be ascribed hampered the ability to determine if these were the floors of courtyards or rooms.
Just a single diagnostic potsherd of a bowl, dating to the Mamluk period (Fig. 4:1) was found above the bottom floor. Accordingly, it is possible to date the use of the bottom two floors to the Mamluk period. The upper floor, at the surface elevation, should probably be attributed to modern activity, close to a residential house that is currently being used.
Squares 2, 3 (Figs. 2, 5)
As in Square 1, here too three floors were exposed: an upper floor (68.68–68.77 m asl); a middle one (L2, L3; 67.84–68.13 m asl) and a lower one (L5, L6; 67.15–67.20 m asl). The upper and middle floors were composed of grayish white pounded chalk and the bottom floor was tamped earth mixed with kurkar and soft limestone inclusions. Two walls built of mud bricks (0.25×0.35 m) were discovered: Wall 1 (length 0.7 m, width 0.3 m) in Square 2 and Wall 2 (length 1.6 m) in Square 3, close and parallel to its eastern side. The lower floor (L5, L6) abutted these two walls. The potsherds below the lower floor (L9) dated to the Early Islamic period (eighth–tenth centuries CE) and included a lid of an open cooking pot (Fig. 4:10), a cooking pot handle (Fig. 4:11) and a white jug (Fig. 4:17). The potsherds above the lower floor (L5, L6) and below the middle floor (L2, L3) dated mostly to the Early Islamic period and included bowls (Fig. 4:2–6), cooking vessels (Fig. 4:8, 9), jars (Fig. 4:14–16) anda flask (Fig. 4:18), with the exception of a single cooking pot (Fig. 4:7) and jar (Fig. 4:16) that dated to the Mamluk period.
Based on these artifacts, the lower floor should be dated to the Early Islamic period and the upper two floors—to the Mamluk period.
Square 4 (Figs. 2, 6)
A backhoe was used to dig a trench, alongside which a plaster floor (L7; thickness 1 cm; 67.95 m asl; Fig. 6) that was and rich in charcoal inclusions, was exposed. No architectural remains that could be associated with this floor were found.
Potsherds dating to the Mamluk period were uncovered above the floor, including bowls (Fig. 7:1, 2) and a jar (Fig. 7:5) and below the floor (L8), a deep bowl (Fig. 7:3) and a jar (Fig. 7:4) were discovered.
The pottery finds indicate that the floor should be dated to the Mamluk period.
The ancient architectural remains exposed in the excavation date to the Early Islamic period. The rapid development of Ramla at this time resulted in a significant expansion of the city, which incorporated the excavation area within its limits. The mud-brick wall remains probably belonged to a bathhouse, as such walls are characteristic of this type of structure.
The earthquakes of 1033 and 1068 CE destroyed the city and subsequently, its size was reduced. The later floors in the excavation were set in the Mamluk period, following these earthquakes; they were located on the eastern fringes of the city in this period and their purpose could not be determined.