Stratum 5. Gray soil that contained a mixture of numerous potsherds, mostly Kefar Hananya type ware (second–fourth centuries CE) was exposed in the earliest stratum. In addition, two short sections of poorly preserved walls (W4, W12; Figs. 3, 4) that may have belonged to buildings from this period were exposed.
Stratum 4. A wall (W8) of a pool, coated with gray plaster (L115; Fig. 5), was exposed. A shallow channel (L116), possibly one that conveyed the overflow from the pool, crossed the top of the wall. Ceramic finds from the Byzantine and Umayyad periods (sixth–eighth centuries CE) were discovered in the pool, which was damaged by later construction.
Stratum 3. Remains of well-built walls were exposed; however, they were damaged by the construction of a later pool (L126; see Stratum 2 below) in the west and by modern earthmoving work in the south. Two construction phases were discerned in the walls (Fig. 6). Three walls (W5B, W11, W14) were ascribed to the early phase and three walls (W5A, W7, W13)—to the later phase; in addition, another wall (W3) exposed in the south of the area probably also belonged to the late phase. The finds close to the walls from both phases and within the walls themselves dated to the Abbasid and Fatimid periods (ninth–eleventh centuries CE).
Stratum 2. Two non-contiguous building complexes were discovered. Remains of a pool (L126) were uncovered in the north of the area; two of its walls were preserved, and only one was excavated (W6). The pool was covered with a vault, into which an opening was cut allowing the water to flow in (Figs. 7, 8). A multitude of potsherds from the eleventh and twelfth centuries CE was discovered in the pool. The most prominent of these finds is a glazed bowl decorated with a drawing of a Crusader soldier (Fig. 9). Two perpendicular walls (W1, W10) were discovered in the south of the area. The course of Wall 1 was not straight (exposed length c. 8 m) and a small elliptical pool (L103) was adjacent to its northeastern side. The floor of the pool and the lower parts of its walls were plastered. The plaster also covered a section of W1, indicating that the wall and the pool were used at the same time. The ceramic finds in the south of the area dated to the eleventh and twelfth centuries CE and included another fragment of the decorated bowl that was discovered in the north of the area. The Crusader-period pottery consists of a homogenous assemblage from the pool, which is unique and important for the study of the ceramic repertoire of Tiberias in this period.
Stratum 1. Remains of a modern building, including a wall foundation (W9) and a concrete floor, were exposed. Most of the building is completely destroyed. The entire excavation area was disturbed in the modern era.
The finds in the excavation corroborate the supposition that the Roman-period city in Tiberias did not extend as far as the shore of the Kinneret; rather, it was situated on a higher level. A stadium that Josephus mentioned was built near the shore, outside the limits of the city. The city had expanded as far as the shore of the lake in the Byzantine period. Building remains from the Byzantine and Umayyad periods were discovered in the excavation area. The city suffered tremendous damage in the earthquake of 749 CE. It seems that this earthquake also destroyed buildings in the excavation area, although this cannot be confirmed as yet.
The city reached the peak of its prosperity as the capital of Jund al-Urdun in the Abbasid period. The expanded city, which extended from the municipal park in the north, south of Hammat Tiberias, continued to flourish also in the Fatimid period. In the second half of the eleventh century CE, most of the area in the city was abandoned and the settlement was concentrated within the present Old City. The excavation area was left outside the city limits in this period; however, it was very close to the city wall. The finds from the excavation seem to show that activity transpired outside the city walls. The excavation area remained beyond the city’s boundaries until it was rebuilt in the twentieth century CE.