Square 1. A tamped earth floor (L108; Fig. 2) that incorporated scattered medium-sized wadi pebbles was exposed. The ceramic finds below the floor (L114) included cooking pots (Fig. 3:1–3) and jars (Fig. 3:4, 5), dating to the Byzantine period (fifth–seventh centuries CE).
Square 2. The northern part of a winepress, which included sections of walls enclosing the installation from the north (W3; Fig. 4) and east (W5), and a wall section between the treading floor and the collecting vat (W2), was exposed. A section of the treading floor, paved with a white industrial mosaic, was partially preserved (L109; Fig. 5), as well as part of the collecting vat (L122; diam. 0.65 m, depth 0.5 m), in whose floor was a circular sump (L125; diam. 0.15 m, depth 8 cm). The southern part of the winepress is situated beneath a modern road and was not excavated. On the floor of the collecting vat was a thick layer of potsherds, mostly cooking pots dating to the Byzantine period (sixth–seventh centuries CE; not illustrated), which indicates that this part of the winepress was turned into a refuse pit after it was no longer used.
Square 3. A section of a floor or a work surface (L111), built of medium-sized fieldstones on a bedding or floor of soil mixed with chalk, was exposed. Two square ashlars (L101), perhaps part of a wall that did not survive, were discovered on a section of the floor.
Square 4. An earthen floor mixed with chalk (L110; thickness c. 0.1 m) was exposed close to the surface.
Square 5. An ash level (L102; thickness 3–15 cm; Figs. 6: Section 3-3; 7), which descended to the south, was identified in the eastern section of the square and was probably discarded from a nearby installation north of the square.
Square 6. An intact oil lamp (L103; Fig. 3:6), dating to the fourth–fifth centuries CE, was discovered on the surface. Three shallow refuse pits (L120; average depth 0.4 m) that contained fragments of pottery vessels from the Byzantine period (fourth–sixth centuries CE) and a coin dating to 383–395 CE (IAA 136615) were exposed below the surface.
Square 7. A pit containing pottery debris (Figs. 8, 9) was uncovered. The upper part of the pit (L104; thickness 0.5 m) included cooking pots (Fig. 3:7) and jars (Fig. 3:8, 9), dating to the fifth–seventh centuries CE, and two coins dating to the third quarter of the fourth century CE (355–361 CE, IAA 136612; 364–375 CE, IAA 136613). A probe excavated deep inside the pit (L118) revealed fragments of pottery vessels dating to the sixth century CE in its upper part, including an oil lamp (Fig. 3:10). The finds from the lower part of the pit included potsherds dating to the Roman period (second–third centuries CE), mostly cooking pots (Fig. 3:11) and jars (Fig. 3:12, 13), and also a coin struck by the emperor Licinius I in Aquileia and dating to 312–313 CE (IAA 136614). Among the special finds is a phallus-shaped stone fragment (Fig. 3:14). It seems that this was a refuse pit for pottery vessels that were no longer in use.
A layer of soil, which contained numerous flint artifacts, was discovered in the bottom of the probe, below the refuse pit. The lithic artifacts included mostly debitage—primary artifacts, several flakes and core debitage that is non-diagnostic, as well as a few retouched items that also cannot be dated with certainty. A considerable amount of the artifacts were worn, abraded and covered with patina; hence they were transported from afar by way of the wadi or with eroded soil.
Square 8. A tamped earth floor (L105) was exposed. A circular, conical installation (L112; diam. 1.25–1.80 m, depth 0.75 m; Fig. 4: 2-2) that tapers to the bottom was dug in the sand beneath the floor. A layer of ash (L117; thickness 0.25 m; Fig. 10) was revealed at the bottom of the installation and plaster was applied haphazardly to its sides. Faint traces of soot adhered to the sides, which seem to suggest that charcoal or hot ashes were placed inside the installation for some use.
Square 9. A plastered water channel, supported on both sides by medium and large fieldstones (W1), was exposed. Several fragments of flat stones above the channel indicate it was covered. The channel was aligned east–west and based on its inclination, it conveyed water from east to west, toward the wadi; it may have been a drainage system. Tamped earth floors (L121, L124) were exposed on both sides of the channel. Their elevation, which was slightly different than that of the floors, indicates that the levels were adapted to conform to the southern inclination of the slope.
Square 10. Several limestone fieldstones, lying next to each other in a straight line aligned east–west, at intervals of several centimeters between each stone, were exposed (Fig. 11). A kind of work surface was exposed to the south, built of small and medium fieldstones, embedded in a tamped layer of soil (L119).
The random distribution of the squares hampers our understanding of the site. Better preserved farming installations (Squares 2, 8, 9) were on the upper part of the hill, and refuse pits that contained numerous fragments of pottery vessels (Squares 6, 7) were identified on the southern part. The finds in the rest of the squares were eroded and poorly preserved.
Most of the ceramic artifacts dated to the Byzantine period, mainly to the fifth–seventh centuries CE. The finds at the bottom level of Refuse Pit 118 dated to the Roman period (second–third centuries CE).