During October 2009, an archaeological survey was conducted along Highway 38 (License S-127/2009; map ref. 1990–2010/6300–6375), prior to expansion and development of the road. The survey, undertaken on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority and underwritten by the Public Works Bureau, was directed by D. Storchan, with the assistance of P. Betzer, D. Ein-Mor (survey) and D. Levi (GPS).
The current survey was carried out in the wake of changes made to the original plans after the 2009 survey (License No. S-8/2008). The former survey was conducted on both sides of the roadway, from Sha‘ar Ha-Gāy to Hartuv junctions. The present survey was limited to areas that were not included in the original plans (Fig 1).
Various rock-cut installations, quarries and a tomb were recorded in the survey, as well as a stone clearance heap.
Quarries (Sites 65, 66, 71, 78). These were generally found on moderate slopes by bedrock outcrops. The negatives of extracted building blocks were noted in some quarries. A tomb (Fig. 2) was found at Site 66, in addition to the quarry (Fig. 3).
Installations (Sites 68, 70, 74–78) included cupmarks, a bodeda and a possible winepress. Most of the sites were found covered with earth and vegetation and thus, it was difficult to determine their nature.
Stone Clearance Heap (Site 69). Found badly damaged on a moderate slope. The heap had a circular shape (c. 4 × 5 m). The heap was composed of small fieldstones with no noticeable retaining wall.
To the east of Highway 38 and north of the Eshta’ol Junction, a large outcrop of natural flint (Site 73) was noticed. This site, located in proximity to the Early Bronze–Intermediate Bronze Ages site at the Eshta’ol junction (HA-ESI 120
, HA-ESI 121
), may have served as the source for the manufacture of flint tools.
A large concentration of bedrock-hewn quarries, installations, water cisterns and burial tombs was discerned on the northern slope, below the northwestern portion of Moshav Naham (Site 79). A concentration of this nature may indicate the presence of a much larger archeological site, probably located on top of the hill within the confines of the present-day Moshav.