Quarry 100 (Figs. 3, 4). This is a large quarry (excavated length 27 m, width c. 12 m) that deepens toward the north (quarrying depth: south end—1.3 m, center—3.3 m, north end—at least 4 m). The quarry extends to the northwest, beneath a building, and was therefore not excavated in its entirety. The quarrying probably commenced in its northern part and proceeded southward, until it breached the wall of a cistern (L102; below); consequently, the cistern was circumvented to the east, and the quarrying continued southward. Evidence of quarried stones (average stone size 0.35 × 0.35 × 0.70 m) and severance channels could be discerned in the quarry. Two to five broad, relatively shallow quarrying steps were hewn in the southern part of the quarry (Figs. 5–7), whereas most of its central and the northern part contained 6–8 narrow, deep quarrying steps (Fig. 8). In one place in the center of the quarry, near its eastern side, were shallow, broad quarrying steps (Fig. 9). The floor in the center and southern part of the quarry (2.9–3.8 m wide) was hewn to a roughly uniform level. A layer of crushed stones and quarrying debris that covered most of the floor had fused with the bedrock and formed a calcareous deposit (L103); this layer was thicker in the northern part of the quarry (at least 1 m thick) than in its center (c. 0.7 m thick; Fig. 10). Throughout most of the quarry, this layer was covered with an accumulation of brown soil (c. 0.4 m thick). A few Late Roman and Byzantine-period potsherds—a jar (Fig. 11:1), a jug (Fig. 11:2) and a lid (Fig. 11:3)—and a provincial Roman coin from 218–235 CE minted in Caesarea (IAA 157664) were discovered in the calcareous layer (L103). The quarry’s western fringes exhibited evidence of modern quarrying: a vertical drill for inserting explosives for blasting the rock.
Cistern 102 is a small, bell-shaped hewn and plastered cistern (0.85–1.70 × 2.90 m, depth 2.4 m; Figs. 12–14). The upper part of the cistern was narrow (width 0.8 m). Its lower part is narrow in the south (width 0.85 m) and wider in the north (width 1.45 m). The walls and floor of the cistern were coated with a single layer of white plaster (thickness 2.5 cm); the roof of the cistern did not survive, and it is therefore unclear whether it was originally hewn into the bedrock or built. An accumulation sloping from south to north and consisting of brown soil and numerous large, flat stones was found inside the cistern. The deposit yielded Late Roman and Byzantine-period potsherds that included bowls (Fig. 15:1, 2) and a juglet (Fig. 15:3). A shallow elliptical basin (L104; 0.68 × 0.78 m, depth 9 cm; Fig. 16) was hewn in the bedrock surface above the cistern, c. 2 m to its east. It is unclear whether the two installations were associated in any way.
Quarry 200 (Figs. 17, 18) is a small quarry (exposed length 9 m, width 3–4 m, max. depth 1.4 m) with three quarrying steps; its northward continuation was not excavated. Evidence of quarried stones (0.35 × 0.35 × 0.70 m on average) could be discerned in the quarry. The quarry's floor was flat and quite uniform in level. No finds whatsoever were recovered.
Quarry 300 (Fig. 17) is a small quarry (exposed length 7 m, width c. 4 m, max. depth 2 m) with five quarrying steps; its northward extension was not excavated. Evidence of quarried stones attest to the extraction of stones of a similar size as those quarried in Quarry 200. The floor of the quarry was flat and quite uniform in level. A layer of crushed stones and quarrying debris was found at the bottom of the quarry; some of it had fused with the bedrock. It was devoid of finds.
The three quarries discovered in the excavation add to the dozens of quarries already excavated in northern Jerusalem, northward from Nahal Zofim and to the west of the watershed. The meager pottery finds from the Late Roman and Byzantine periods retrieved from Quarry 100 are similar in date to finds from other quarries in northern Jerusalem and probably attest to the period of this quarry’s use. It seems that numerous areas where the rocky land was not suitable for farming were leased by their owners to quarrying contractors. Once the quarrying was completed, the quarrying debris and crushed rock were scattered in the quarries along with soil, and this apparently turn them into farmland. Thus, the land was exploited twice, allowing the owners to profit from both uses.