Quarry A (c. 6.5 × 13.5 m, depth c. 2 m; Figs. 3–5) was rectangular, with four or five quarrying steps (each c. 0.4 m deep) on three of its sides (L12–L14). A wide, deep quarrying step (L11; c. 4 × 4 m, depth c. 1 m) was exposed next to the western side of the quarry. There was no opening in the quarry for removing stones.
Quarry B (12 × 14 m, depth c. 3.5 m; Figs. 4, 6, 7) was square, with five to eight quarrying steps on all sides. There was no opening in the quarry for removing stones.
Quarry C (9 × 21 m, depth c. 5 m; Figs. 8–10) was rectangular, with six quarrying steps. Quarrying negatives were discerned, indicating that several stones (c. 0.5 × 0.7 m) were produced in the quarry. There was no opening in the quarry for removing stones.
Quarry D (14 × 15 m; Figs. 9, 11) was large, and extended westward, beyond the excavation limits. Four to six quarrying steps were uncovered. The southwestern side of the quarry (L47) was opened to facilitate the removal of stones.
Quarry E (25 × 40 m, max. depth 10 m; Figs. 12, 13) was an extensive quarry that consisted of six clusters of rock-cuttings (L52–L57) connected by hewn passages. Six to ten quarrying steps were uncovered on all sides. Stones were removed out of the quarry through an opening (L58) on its southwestern side. Evidence of mechanical drilling was discovered in the southern part of the quarry, indicating that this area was also quarried during the modern era.
Quarry F (Figs. 14–16) was an extensive quarry, comprising five clusters of rock-cuttings (L62–L64, L66, L69). A raised bedrock surface (L65) in the center of the quarry had three–four quarrying steps. The two southern steps (L66, L69) were large and deep (max. depth 12 m) and open to the south, whereas the three northern ones were smaller and open to the north.
Quarry G (8 × 8 m, depth c. 3 m; Figs. 17, 18) was small and square, with several quarrying steps. The negatives of quarried stones (0.5 × 1.0 m, c. 0.5 × 1.5 m) could be discerned on the quarry’s floor and on its steps. Signs of mechanical drilling were noted on the western wall of the quarry. The ancient steps were evidently removed due to modern quarrying activity.
Quarry H (c. 10 × 18 m, depth c. 5 m; Figs. 16, 19, 20) was rectangular, with several quarrying steps. The quarrying negatives of rectangular stones of various sizes were discerned where the rock-cutting was carried out. Numerous signs of modern mechanical drilling were discovered on the western side of the quarry. The quarry was opened to the south to facilitate the removal of stones.
Quarry I (Figs. 21, 22) was located near the top of the spur. It comprised two deep, adjacent clusters of rock-cuttings (L91—c. 8 × 8 m, depth c. 3 m; L97—c. 6. × 7, depth c. 2.5 m). The quarrying was carried out directly on the surface. Five quarrying steps (each c. 0.5 m deep) were discovered on the quarry’s sides. No steps were discovered in the eastern wall of Cluster 91 due to karstic weathering of the bedrock. Many severance channels (width c. 0.5 m, depth c. 0.25 m) were discovered on the quarry's floor.
Building (Figs. 3, 4, 23). A rectangular building (c. 3 × 4 m) whose walls (W1, W2, W4, W5) were constructed of a single row of large and medium fieldstones was discovered next to Quarry A. Walls 1, 4 and 5 were built on the bedrock, whereas W2 was constructed on stone slabs that were used to level the area (L26). The walls were preserved to a height of 0.5–1.5 m. An opening (width c. 1 m) was exposed next to the southeastern corner of the building. A leveled layer of tamped earth (L16) was discovered inside the building, above the bedrock. The structure was apparently used as a field tower at the time when the quarries were in use.
Wall (W1; length c. 35 m, width c. 0.5 m, height c. 0.5 m). An east–west wall, built of a single row of large fieldstones and set on the bedrock, retained the southern side of a road (width c. 2 m). The road was delimited on the north by a natural bedrock terrace. A layer of tamped earth and small stones deposited on the bedrock was exposed along the road. It seems that the road was used for transporting stones from the quarries.
Pottery sherds from the Early Roman period were discovered in the layers of quarrying debris. These included a bowl (Fig. 24:9), cooking pots (Fig. 24:11, 12), jugs (Fig. 24:14–19) and juglets (Fig. 24:20–22). A bowl (Fig. 24:10) and a cooking pot (Fig. 24:13), also from the Early Roman period, were found inside the building. A coin of a procurator from the time of Claudius (54 CE; IAA 146295) was discovered in a severance channel in Quarry E. A metal plate (c. 0.5 × 6.0 × 8.0 cm; Fig. 25), belonging to a two-plated wedge used for quarrying, was discovered in Quarry F. When detaching a stone from the bedrock, the wedge would be inserted between two such plates, referred to as lekhayaim, which increased the pressure on the stones and reduced the wear of the wedge set between them. Late Iron Age pottery—bowls (Fig. 24:1, 2), kraters (Fig. 24:3) and jars (Fig. 24:4–8)—were found in two stone clearance heaps adjacent to Quarry I.
Based on the finds recovered from the quarries, the quarrying activity began in the Early Roman period. Sherds from the late Iron Age, discovered in the stone clearance heaps, are probably indicative of activity during this period, but have no relation to the quarries. The differences between the large and small quarries, specifically the structure of the quarries and the size of their stones, stem from the differences in the rock in which the quarrying was conducted. Signs of mechanical drilling discovered in several of the quarries show that they were also used in the modern era. The quarries found in the current excavation augment the numerous quarries previously discovered north of ancient Jerusalem.