Modern Era. Modern disturbances were exposed, consisting of collapsed building materials and installations, including a circular stone-lined cesspit, dug into ancient strata (Fig. 2).
Middle Ages. Mainly collapsed ashlars were exposed, some of which fell on top of stone heaps dating to the Hellenistic period and some that penetrated the late Persian–early Hellenistic layer (Fig. 3). Numerous metallic artifacts dating to the Middle Ages attest to military activity at the site, particularly of horsemen—arrowheads, spears, nails, horseshoes, buckles and hooks, all made of iron.
. Some fifty graves were exposed, generally in the southern part of the area, close to an earlier excavation (Tepper 2014
). Most of the graves were only revealed to the tops of their walls and it was not possible to excavate them completely. The graves were dated based on parallels from Tepper’s excavation. The most common grave type consisted of a heap of small stones sealed by four rectangular ashlar slabs, arranged in a row (Fig. 4). One unique tomb was used to store the remains of cremations; it was fashioned from a dressed kurkar
block that contained a step of sorts inside it (Fig. 5). In addition to the graves and wall stumps, artifacts from the Roman period were exposed, such as a stone basin without any architectural context and several kurkar
ashlars, some plastered, that were discovered in collapse with no clear stratigraphic context (Fig. 6). They were probably parts of funerary structures that had been dismantled in antiquity.
Late Hellenistic Period (late second century BCE)
The principal find was a large stone surface 2–5 courses high (exposed length 17 m, width 1.5–3.0 m, diam. of the stones c. 0.2 m). Pottery sherds dating no later than the late Hellenistic period were found in a probe of the stone heap. A shallow plastered channel (length 13 m, width 0.5 m) running southwest–northeast was built perpendicular to and on top of the stone heap and partially sealed it (Fig. 7). Wall stumps with no clear architectural context were exposed in some of the excavation areas. The late Hellenistic ceramic finds included stamped Aegean amphora handles (Rhodian and others), several fragments of mold-made Hellenistic ("Megarian") bowls and Phoenician semi-fine ware jars.
Late Persian–Early Hellenistic Period
A large quantity of storage and commercial vessels was discovered, including North Aegean amphorae, straight-shouldered jars and jars with basket handles from production sites in the Eastern Mediterranean basin, such as were found in the adjacent excavation (Abu Hamid 2013
). Some of the vessels exposed stood upright in a row (Fig. 8), and some were shattered, on the ground (Fig. 9). The ceramic artifacts found together with the rows of jars included a small assemblage of cooking vessels and tableware, mostly black-slipped Attic ware, generally dating to the fourth century BCE, and several earlier red-figure vessels. Close to the rows of jars were the remains of four fieldstone- and ashlar-built ‘rooms’ (width 0.4 m) that date to the period. Jar fragments and complete jars were incorporated in the construction of two of the walls of the rooms; one room was paved with roughly hewn stones (Fig. 10). A unique installation consisting of a circular conical pit lined with medium-sized fieldstones was also exposed (diam. 1 m, depth 1.15 m; Fig. 11). Inside the installation were numerous broken pottery vessels, mainly jars from production sites in the Eastern Mediterranean basin, and North Aegean amphorae.
The finds from the excavation supplement our information concerning the nature of human activity near the city of ʽAkko in antiquity.