WP1—Rock-hewn winepress (Figs. 2, 3). The wine press comprised a treading floor (L111; 4.00 × 4.54 m), a collecting vat (L112; 2.1 × 2.2 m, depth 1.85 m) and a filtration pit (0.65 × 0.70 m, depth 0.5 m), which were connected by channels. Small patches of hydraulic plaster were preserved in the corners of the treading floor. A square pit (1.18 × 1.18 m) was hewn in the center of the treading floor, to accommodate the stone base of a screw press (1.1 × 1.1 m). A square recess (0.4 × 0.4 m, depth 0.4 m) that widens toward the west at its base, was carved in the center of the stone. A channel connects the pit in the center of the treading floor to the collecting vat. Another channel leads from the northwestern corner of the treading floor to the filtration pit. The collecting vat is square, with six steps hewn in its eastern wall, and a triangular pit for collecting the remainder of the must in its northwestern corner (Fig. 4). It is coated with light pink hydraulic plaster, mixed with crushed pottery. The plaster was applied over a thick layer (c. 7 cm) of cement and pottery sherds. Evidently all the components of the wine press were covered with similar hydraulic plaster that was applied over a layer of cement. The filtration pit was square and a hole that was perforated at its bottom led to the collecting vat.
Middle-Roman period pottery sherds were discovered in the soil that accumulated in the wine press. Among them was a basin with a ledge rim (Fig. 5:3) and a jar (Fig. 5:11) from the second century CE. Similar pottery was found on the surface, but it was not sufficient to date the wine press. R. Frankel named this plan of wine press the ‘Four Squares Plan’ and the screw press ‘Eilon Press’; Ahihud is on the northern boundary of the distribution of these wine presses (Frankel 1999: Maps 34, 35, 39).
Installation I1. A rectangular rock-cutting, in the shape of a trough (0.9 × 1.3 m, depth c. 0.5 m; Fig. 2).
Installation I2. A shallow rectangular rock-cutting in the shape of a trough, with a shallow depression carved in its base (0.5 × 1.1 m, depth c. 0.1 m; Fig. 6).
Installation I3. A rectangular rock-cutting in the shape of a trough (0.5 × 1.3 m, depth c. 0.25 m; Figs. 6, 7).
Installation I4. A shallow irregular rock-cutting (diam. c. 0.8 m, depth c. 0.1 m; Fig. 6).
Terra rossa soil accumulated over the installations. It contained pottery sherds from the Roman period.
Quarry Q1 (4.5 × 5.0 m, max. depth c. 0.8 m). A shallow quarry with two quarrying steps. A large pocket of soil was exposed at the bottom of the quarry pit. This may have been the reason for abandoning this quarry.
Quarry Q2 (4 × 6 m, max. depth 1.2 m; Figs. 8, 9). A rectangular quarry with three quarrying steps. There are traces of quarrying rectangular stones of various sizes, severance channels, and stones in the process of being quarried, not yet detached from the bedrock.
Quarry Q3 (1 × 2 m). A small shallow quarry. A corner hewn in the rock and a severance channel are preserved.
Quarry Q4 (1.5 × 2.0 m, depth 0.65 m). A small quarry consisting of two quarrying steps. In the western part of the quarry, a half-quarried stone was flanked by severance channel. Nodules were visible at the bottom of the quarrying pit, indicating that the bedrock was unsuitable as a source for ashlars.
Quarry Q5 (5 × 7 m, Fig. 10). A shallow quarry consisting of two quarrying steps. A cave in the center of the quarry (L118; exposed depth c. 1.2 m) contained an accumulation of clayey soil, with fragments of pottery dating to the Middle Roman period, among them a late first – mid-fourth century CE casserole, Kefar Hananya Form 1B (Fig. 5:2).
Quarry Q6 (diam. 1.9 m, Figs. 11, 12). A circular rock-cutting partially surrounded by a severance channel (width c. 0.1 m). It seems that a crushing stone or a crushing basin of an oil press (diam. 1.6 m, thickness c. 0.4 m) was hewn there. Large crushing stones (max. diam. 1.4 m) were identified in a preliminary survey of the site. Several pottery fragments dating to the Middle Roman period were found in the soil that accumulated in the quarry, among them two lids (Fig. 5:7, 8) and a jar (Fig. 5:12).
Quarry Q7 (4.5 × 11.0 m, max. depth 1.8 m). A large quarry consisting of four quarrying steps. A partition wall was built in a north–south direction on the step below the top one. It was built of one row of roughly hewn fieldstones, and preserved to a height of a single course. The construction of the wall conformed to the quarrying lines and it seems that it was part of an agricultural structure that was built after the quarry went out of use.
Road section (R1; exposed length 11 m; Figs. 13, 14). A section of a local road, with a surface constructed of various sized stones (L105; max. thickness 0.3 m), laid over a foundation of stones and soil (L110; max. thickness 0.7 m). The road was delimited by two walls (W1, W2), constructed of a row of very large fieldstones. Several pottery sherds were discovered on Surface 105, among them a Kefar Hananya casserole Form 1C (Fig. 5:1), dating to the mid-third–fifth centuries CE, and a jar (Fig. 5:13) from the Late Roman period (third–fourth centuries CE). A few pottery sherds from the second century CE were discovered in foundation L110, including a basin with a ledge rim (Fig. 5:4) and a lid (Fig. 5:9). The road connected the agricultural zone to the surrounding settlements. Its function may have been to transport stones from the quarries.
Burial Caves (C1—see Fig. 11; C2—see Fig. 2). Both caves had an entrance shaft and an arched entrance facing north. The entrance to Cave 1 was c. 2.5 m below the top of the rock. Soil and stones accumulated in both caves and contained pottery sherds from the Middle Roman period, among them a small basin (Fig. 5:5); a closed Kefar Hananya cooking pot Form 4A (Fig. 5:6), which dates from the mid-first century BCE to the mid-second century CE; and a lid (Fig. 5:10) and jar (Fig. 5:14) from the second–third centuries CE.