The survey area is located within the precincts of three important archaeological sites that were surveyed and documented in the past:
1. Horbat Qishron – c. 900 m south of Golani Junction. Among the antiquities documented were wall foundations on the northern side, stone heaps, an underground vault, cisterns, tombs and pottery from the Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Late Bronze I, Iron Age and the Roman, Byzantine and Islamic periods (ESI 15:34; HA-ESI 109:94*).
2. Sirat Maskana – c. 800 m north of Golani Junction. Settlement remains, a round animal pen built of stone without mortar, flint tools and potsherds from Iron Age II and the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods (HA-ESI 124
3. Khirbat Lubiya – on a forested hill located c. 1 km east of Golani Junction. Excavations there uncovered a site from the second century BCE that existed continuously until the fifth century CE (Permit No. A-4405). The ruin is identified with Lubiya village which was the largest settlement in the Tiberias district in the Late Ottoman period (HA-ESI 121).
The survey in the area performed on foot focused on the eastern, southern and western sides of the junction. High, dense weeds covered the surface in a large part of the surveyed area. Seven sites with archaeological finds were identified (Fig. 1):
1. Scatter of abraded flints, flakes and tool fragments. A few worn potsherds dating to the Roman period were noted (Fig. 2).
2. Cluster of rock-cuttings (15×15 m), including straight cuttings, separating channels and extensive quarrying complexes that might be part of a building-stone quarry. No potsherds were found (Figs. 3–6).
3. A hewn rectangular boulder (3×4 m; Fig. 7) that looks like a treading floor and was formerly excavated (Permit No. A-6081). Nearby, to the east, a hewn rectangular pit (1.5×2.0 m) that appears to be a collecting vat. A scant amount of potsherds dating to the Roman period was found.
4. A winepress with a square treading floor (1.2×1.2 m) that drains into a circular collecting vat (diam. 0.7 m; Fig. 8). Many flint flakes and tool fragments (Fig. 9) and several potsherds dating to the Roman period are scattered in the vicinity.
5. A rock-hewn pit, 4 m east of Site 4 (depth c. 3 m), probably a cistern (Fig. 10).
6. Two cupmarks (Fig. 11).
7. Scatter of abraded flints, flakes and tool fragments, as well as several worn potsherds dating to the Roman period (Fig. 12).
The northern part of the junction was surveyed by A. Mokary and A. Shapiro in June 2007, prior to widening the section of road between Golany and ‘Eilabun Junctions (HA-ESI 121
) and three sites with archaeological finds were identified in the vicinity of the junction:
8. Scatter of potsherds dating to the Roman period on either side of the planned road.
9. Stone clearance heaps that include potsherds.
10. A Roman-period road that crosses the planned highway.