A strip (3 × 15 m; Fig. 1) was opened and six strata (I–VI) were identified, dating to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B and Middle Chalcolithic periods, as well as Early Bronze Age I and II. Strata I and II were excavated throughout the excavation area; Stratum III and Strata IV–VI were excavated to a lesser extent (3 × 5 m, 2 × 2 m, respectively).
Stratum VI consisted of dark clay sediment with limestone aggregates and was devoid of finds.
Stratum V consisted of dark terra rossa soil with limestone aggregates (max. thickness 0.3–0.4 m). The meager finds included no potsherds but flint artifacts, among them indicative tools, such as an arrowhead (Fig. 2:2), an axe (Fig. 2:1) and ridge blades (Fig. 2:3, 4), whose production utilized the naviform knapping technology, dating to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period.
Stratum IV consisted of brown sediment (thickness c. 0.5 m) that contained potsherds and flint artifacts. An occupation level composed of a stone surface adjoining the remains of a round installation sealed Stratum V in the northern part of the square. Despite the small excavated area, Stratum IV had a plethora of finds located mostly on top of the stone surface, such as intact bowls (Fig. 3:1) that were produced on a tournette and ceramic weights (Fig. 3:2). At first glance, the ceramic assemblage and the flint tools, which include truncated and backed sickle blades, would point to a Middle Chalcolithic-period date for this the stratum.
Stratum III, which is the main stratum at the site, consisted of light brown clay fill (thickness c. 0.7 m). Stone foundations of at least two adjacent buildings with round corners, which are characteristic of Early Bronze Age IB (Fig. 4), were exposed.
The finds are especially abundant and include numerous typical pottery vessels that have a rope decoration and grain-wash painting. The flint assemblage contains mainly tools that are characteristic of the Chalcolithic period, such as adzes (Fig. 5:1), thin axes knapped on tabular flint (Fig. 5:2) and backed sickle blades (Fig. 6), probably because the foundations of the buildings penetrated into Stratum IV. A unique find is the base of a pottery vessel that is engraved with an image (Fig. 7), which can be construed at least two ways: a depiction of a seated man whose two hands are raised upward, resembling in a way the seal impression found at Giv‘at Rabbi (A. Ben-Tor.1992. New Light on Cylinder Seal Impressions Showing Cult Scenes from Early Bronze Age Palestine. IEJ 42:153–164), or an animal with a tail, probably a scorpion, similar to the etchings that appear in the Early Bronze Age on fan scrappers (O. Marder, E. Braun and I. Milevski. 1995. The Flint Assemblage of Lower Horvat ‘Illin: Some Technical and Economic Considerations. ‘Atiqot 27:63–95).
Stratum II consisted of brown terra rossa soil that contained small stones (thickness c. 0.55 m). The stratum was exposed in the south and it seems that its northern part, closer to the Nahal Zippori channel was eroded. Remains of three walls (Fig. 8), which are apparently suggestive of a rectangular structure, because the joint between the long wall (W10) and a smaller wall (W11) to its west forms a right angle, were exposed. The finds include potsherds that date mainly to Early Bronze Age II and flint artifacts dating from the Early Chalcolithic period to the Early Bronze Age, including two characteristic Canaanean blades, a retouched blade (Fig. 9:1) and a non-retouched blade (Fig. 9:2).
Stratum I is the surface level (thickness 0.7–1.0 m) that sloped gently toward the north; it had been deeply tilled and contained archaeological finds (potsherds and flint tools) mixed with modern artifacts.
It is possible that the settlement at the site throughout the periods was connected to the spring. Despite the limited scope of the excavation, the intensity of the strata and the abundance of finds indicate that this was, undoubtedly, an important settlement in the Lower Galilee during the Middle Chalcolithic period and Early Bronze Age I, as was probably the case also in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B and Early Chalcolithic periods and Early Bronze Age II. In light of the building preservation in Strata II and III and the restoration of the pottery vessels from Stratum IV, it seems that the site was well preserved. Therefore, it should be considered central to our understanding of the development of permanent agricultural settlements into urban settlements in this region, which began in the Neolithic period (the Neolithic revolution) and continued until the Early Bronze Age (the urban revolution).