Stratum 2 (Intermediate Bronze Age; 2200–2000 BCE; Fig. 2). A wall (W4) built of small basalt fieldstones in a northeast–southwest direction and preserved to a height of one course was exposed in Area B, beneath alluvium and travertine pebbles (thickness 0.85 m); it continued beyond the excavation limits. Wall 4 was founded on a thin layer of brown soil containing several pottery sherds from the Intermediate Bronze Age (L6). This layer was deposited on hamra soil devoid of sherds (L9). The southeastern face and several stones from its core were all that was preserved of W4; the wall was damaged, probably by erosion or by the robbing of its stones. No other architectural remains from this period were discovered west of the wall, suggesting that the wall was part of a structure that extended east or south of the excavation area. The ceramic artifacts recovered from the stratum date to the Intermediate Bronze Age and include a jar with a plain everted rim (Fig. 3:1), a jug with a plain everted rim adorned with a combed decoration on and below the rim (Fig. 3:2), an amphoriskos that has a lug handle and is slipped red on both the inside and the outside (Fig. 3:3), a shoulder fragment of a jar adorned with a rope ornamentation (Fig. 3:4) and folded ledge handles (not drawn). Judging by the ceramic finds, it seems that the wall should be dated to the Intermediate Bronze Age.
Stratum 1 (Roman and Byzantine periods; Figs. 4, 5). In Area A, walls that do not constitute a clear plan were exposed below brown alluvium (depth 0.95–1.10 m). In the east of the area, a massive wall (W5) was uncovered. Running in a northeast–southwest direction, it was built of two rows of various-sized basalt fieldstones and a core of small fieldstones and brown earth. The wall was preserved to a height of one course and extended southward, beyond the limits of the excavated area; its northern part was not preserved. The wall was founded on hamra devoid of pottery sherds, which was deposited on a slope that descends to the southwest. A short, levelled strip of small fieldstones that were set into the hamra was exposed along the wall’s western face. West of these stones were two elongated concentrations of small and medium-sized fieldstones that had apparently collapsed from nearby walls. Two walls (W14, W15; Fig. 6) were uncovered in the western part of the square. Wall 14 was founded on brown soil containing pottery sherds. It was constructed of small and medium-sized basalt fieldstones along a northwest–southeast axis and was preserved two courses high. The collapsed stones of a third course were found above the wall’s two courses. Wall 14 severed W15, which extended southward, beyond the excavation limits. Wall 15 was founded on hamra devoid of pottery sherds. Its northern part was constructed of small and medium-sized, roughly hewn basalt stones arranged as headers extending the full width of the wall. Its southern part, preserved to a height of one course, was built of flat basalt stones placed on their broad side on a foundation of small fieldstones. Pottery sherds dating to the Roman period were discovered in its foundation trench. An accumulation of brown soil (L12) overlaying hamra devoid of pottery sherds extended west of the walls, up to the western balk. Just to the northeast of W14 was a small section of construction in various-sized basalt fieldstones (L16), which continued northward, beyond the excavation area. A thick layer composed of brown alluvium, numerous travertine pebbles, fieldstones and many pottery sherds dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods (L11, L17, L19) was partially exposed east of Walls 14 and 15. This layer of silt became deeper below the walls. A narrow, elongated pit (channel?) dug in hamra was identified in the northwestern corner of the square; it continued northward, beyond the limits of the excavation area. During a later phase, the pit was filled with earth and pottery sherds.
Mixed ceramic finds from the Roman and Byzantine periods were discovered while excavating the stratum. The finds from the Roman period included an ETS bowl (Fig. 7:10) from the first century BCE–second century CE, and jars and a fragment of a discus lamp made of yellowish gray clay and slipped black on the outside from the first–third centuries CE (not drawn). The finds from the Byzantine period included several types of imported red-slipped bowls (LRRW), among them a CRS 9A bowl (Fig. 7:2) and an LRC 10A bowl (Fig. 7:3), both dating to the sixth century CE; an LRC 3 bowl from the early sixth century CE (Fig. 7:4); and a CRS 1 bowl from the late fifth century CE (Fig. 7:5). In addition, a krater made of indigenous clay (Fig. 7:6), two cooking pots (Fig. 7:7, 8) and two jars (Fig. 7: 9, 10) dating to the fifth–sixth centuries CE were found. A coin from the years 383–395 CE (IAA 143328) was also recovered from this stratum. Coins of this type remained in circulation until the fifth century, and sometimes even until the sixth century CE; therefore, it should be attributed to the activity that occurred in this area during the Byzantine period.
The exposure of a wall from the Intermediate Bronze Age in the excavation area may indicate that the Tel Iztabba settlement from this period, exposed at the southern part of the excavation, extended over a large area and continued to the northwest. It is possible that this wall stood along the margins of the settlement and served in an agricultural context. Activity was renewed at the site during the Roman period (second–third centuries CE); however, it seems that the site was abandoned in either the Late Roman or Early Byzantine period. The activity was once again renewed there in the fifth–sixth centuries CE. Presumably, W5 was part of a large structure, perhaps a foundation for mud-brick walls. It seems that the other walls were connected to installations or agricultural structures. The excavation area is located beyond the limits of the Roman–Byzantine city of Scythopolis, and it is therefore likely that agricultural activity was conducted there.