Settlement Remains
Remains of two walls, c. 0.7 m apart and aligned east–west, were exposed in the eastern part of the site (W1, W2; Fig. 1). The walls, which differed in construction and in the stones that composed them, did not apparently belong to the same structure. Wall 1 (length 1.8 m, width 0.5 m, height 0.25–0.30 m), preserved a single course high, was built of medium-sized kurkar stones (0.20 × 0.25 m), some of which underwent preliminary dressing. The relatively fine quality of the wall’s construction was evident despite its poor state of preservation. Wall 2 (length 6.3 m, width 0.7 m, height 0.20–0.25 m) was built of small kurkar stones (0.10 × 0.15 m), which were placed close together with mud as bonding material and survived to three courses high. The northern side of the eastern part of W2 was made thicker (length 2.7 m, width 0.4 m) in a later phase. At its western end, it formed a corner with a wall that faced south (W3), but did not survive beyond this point. At its eastern end, W2 was connected to a robber trench of another wall that also faced south. It seems that these walls were part of a building whose plan is unclear.
The beddings of two floors (L16, L21 and L37) were exposed north and south of the walls. They consisted of tamped earth together with small fragments of kurkar and mud bricks and related to the building. Several adjacent stones that may be the remains of construction were exposed atop a section of the northern floor (L37). Remains of a tabun (L42), fragments of another tabun and a concentration of ash that related to them were identified north of W2’s eastern end. Basalt grinding stones and c. 20 flint tools were found in the floor beddings (Loci 16, 21).
Remains of another habitation level that included an accumulation of soil mixed with ash, overlying the natural hamra (max. thickness c. 0.2 m), were identified c. 8 m west of the walls. It contained many fragments of pottery vessels, basalt grinding stones, as well as animal bones, mostly sheep and goat and the rest—cattle bones.
The remains of five round pits (diam. 0.5–1.2 m) were exposed c. 15–20 m west of the building. Four of the pits were only preserved to a depth of several centimeters due to severe erosion. At least two phases of use that were separated by a layer of tamped stones were identified in one pit. A few fragments of pottery vessels and animal bones, probably sheep and goat, were found in the fill inside the pits.
Domestic pottery vessels were discovered, including kraters (Fig. 2:1) and cooking pots (Fig. 2:2–5) that are typical of MB IIA, cooking pots that are common throughout the MB II (Fig. 2:6) and jars of MB IIA (Fig. 2:7–13).
The flint tools include 17 coarsely knapped blades, including several sickle blades. A single core, three pounders and numerous flakes were also discovered. The flint artifacts cannot be dated with certainty, but it seems that they are not earlier than the MB II (S.A. Rosen, 1997. Lithics after the Stone Age, London). The presence of the pounders, the many flakes and at least nine partially finished blades or blades that were not used, as well as the small quantity of tools, suggests that a limited amount of flint knapping activity had occurred at the site.