Rock-cut caves, either for burial or dwelling, natural caves and/or rock shelters, mostly in the eastern part of the area, were surveyed. Cave 2 was found looted and had a rock-hewn entrance with a round recess for a rolling stone (Fig. 2) and a burial chamber (3 × 4 m) with benches. A stone fence that bounded the front of Cave 15 was apparently a pen. This dwelling cave was originally a burial cave with a chamber (2 × 2 m) and a trough. Cave 16 was survived by a kokh/trough (1.5 × 21.5 m). Burial Cave 18, which consisted of a chamber (2 × 3 m) and a kokh, served for dwelling at a later phase. Nearby was another burial cave (19). Burial Cave 20 had a kokh and a trough. The entrance of Burial Cave 21 had a vertical groove for a rolling stone. Close to Burial Cave 22 was a complex of three or more burial caves (23). In addition, natural caves and rock shelters that included two sealed caves (4, 5); a natural cave (10) in whose front were Middle Paleolithic flint implements; a cave (25) whose façade was open and inside it was a stone heap and a few caves/rock shelters (24, 26, 27, 35), were recorded.
Field Walls and Terraces
Two fieldstone-built walls (thickness 1.0–1.5 m) that enclose a plot were found at Site 1. Site 6 was a massive wall built of large fieldstones (0.5–0.8 m) that delimited a cultivation plot. Site 7 was an enclosure wall of a cultivation plot that extended perpendicular to the slope and was built of small and large fieldstones (length 50 m, width 0.5 m). Site 9 was a terrace wall built of small fieldstones that was damaged during the installation of a sewer pipe. Site 12 was a thickened terrace wall, adjacent to which potsherds dating to the Byzantine period were found. Site 17 was a large enclosure (160 sq m) that included walls built of two rows of large dressed stones with a core of small stones. Potsherds from the Byzantine period were scattered in its vicinity. A wall built of large upright stones (0.8–1.0 m), which enclosed a cultivation plot and extended for a distance of 20 m, was found at Site 34.
Site 14 featured a corner of a building/watchtower, built of large fieldstones (thickness 1.0–1.5 m).
Two cisterns were surveyed. At Site 3 a rock-cutting that was probably the opening to a cistern or a shaft tomb was found. Site 40 featured a hewn cistern that was damaged when the perimeter retaining wall was constructed around Giv‘at Massu’a.
Site 8 is an agricultural rock-cut installation of some sort. Site 11 featured two hewn cupmarks (diam. 0.4 m) alongside a hewn rectangular installation (1 × 2 m) that contained potsherds from the Byzantine period. A rock-cutting was recorded in Site 36 and Site 39 was a rock-hewn and stepped installation.
Stone Clearance Heaps
Nine sites (13, 28–33, 37, 38) featured piles of stone that were apparently stone clearance heaps (diam. 4–5 m). Potsherds from the Byzantine period were found in Heap 13.