Roman Period (second–fourth centuries CE)
Square B. A short section of a wall running north–south (W114; length 1.3 m, width 0.6 m; Fig. 3) founded on clay soil devoid of pottery sherds was found; it was built of one row of long rectangular basalt stones (0.2 × 0.3 × 0.6 m) and preserved to a height of one course (0.2 m). Pottery sherds dating to the Roman period (second–fourth centuries CE) were uncovered, including a fragment of a Kefar Hananya bowl (Fig. 4:1) and fragments of Kefar Sikhin-type jars (Fig. 4:2, 3). The wall was covered with a thick accumulation of clay (thickness c. 1.4 m) and above the accumulation was a layer of alluvium (L107) consisting of soil and medium-sized pebbles (5 × 8 × 10 cm). The alluvium layer yielded abraded sherds dated to the Roman and Byzantine periods (second–fifth centuries CE) and the Early Islamic period (ninth–tenth centuries CE).
Abbasid Period (ninth–tenth centuries CE)
Squares C, E, F. Three sections of a wall running in a general north–south direction (W105; length 25 m, width 1.1 m; Figs. 5, 6) were exposed. The wall sections were founded on a thick layer of clay alluvium. The walls were built of two rows of large fieldstones with a small and medium-sized fieldstone cores and preserved to a height of a single course. In the alluvium layer were several worn pottery sherds from the Roman and Byzantine periods (third–fifth centuries CE). This alluvium layer resembled those uncovered in other excavations in the municipal park. Along the western side of the wall was an alluvium layer of soil and medium-sized pebbles (5 × 8 × 9 cm; L106, L203; see Fig. 6), similar to the layer in L107 discovered in Sq B. Below this layer was another alluvium layer (L205; see Fig. 6), tamped and hard, that consisted of soil and a dense array of small pebbles (5 × 5 cm). The two alluvium layers abutted the western face of the wall; abraded sherds from the Roman and Byzantine (second–fifth centuries CE) and Abbasid (ninth–tenth centuries CE) periods were found in these layers. The Abbasid-period pottery included fragments of green-glazed bowls (Fig. 4:4), as well as fragments of buff-ware vessels, such as bowls (Fig. 4:5, 6), jar rims (Fig. 4:7, 8), a flat jar base (Fig. 4:9), double handles of juglets (Fig. 4:10, 11) and a body fragment adorned with a plastic ornamentation (Fig. 4:12). Wall 105 was severed by the British Mandate concrete drainage channel, similarly to the wall discovered in the excavation north of the municipal park. The length of W105 and its construction resemble the walls revealed in the excavations in the municipal park and the area to its north.
Square D. The western part of a wall (W115; length 5 m, width 1.05 m; Fig. 7) that ran parallel to W105 was uncovered; the eastern part of the wall was not excavated. The outer western face of W115 was built of large fieldstones; to its east it was abutted by small stones. Adjoining W115’s western face was a layer of alluvium (L117) consisting of soil and small pebbles (5 × 5 cm) mixed with many small sherds from the Roman, Byzantine and Abbasid periods. This layer resembled the one in L205. It seems that W115 was part of the same drainage system that protected the houses in this quarter.
A wall stump from the Middle Roman period is the sole architectural remain from that period in the area, and its context is unclear. During this time, the settlement covered a limited area south of what is today the modern city. The parallel walls (105, 115) from the Abbasid period were located in an open area outside the city limits and were apparently part of an extensive system whose purpose was to convey floodwaters to a central channel that led to the Kinneret, thereby halting the landslides that occurred on the slopes during the flooding. This drainage system protected this part of the city from the flooding and landslides that caused much destruction in rainy years.