Horbat Zekharya was surveyed prior to the construction of Modiʽin and the city’s adjacent industrial zone (Barda 2000; Shavit 2014). The finds from the excavation are similar to those of other excavations that were conducted in the agricultural hinterland of the ancient settlements in the vicinity of Modiʽin. The proximity to Horbat Zekharya, a Christian settlement dating from the Byzantine period, and to the hermit caves in the vicinity, may indicate that the winepress and crushing basin were used during the Byzantine period, when exceptionally intensive agricultural activity took place (Bar 2008:96–120; Tsafrir 1984:347–363).