Area A (Figs. 2–5). The excavation was conducted along the surface (Loci 100, 102; 8 × 12 m), above the cave’s ceiling, as well as inside it (Loci 101, 103; 3 × 5 m). In the first phase, a burial cave (4 × 4 m) whose opening was set in the western side was hewn. Hewn niches that may have been used as troughs were located in the northern and southern sides of the cave. The adaptation of the cave for use as a cistern in the second phase was achieved by quarrying eastward and plastering (L103; 5 × 6 × 6 m). A plastered pool (L102; 0.8 × 2.2 × 2.2 m), into which rainwater was conveyed from the ceiling of the cave, was built near the cave’s entrance on the outside. A channel (width 0.1 m) that conveyed water from the pool to the cistern was installed in the pool’s eastern wall (W50). Another aperture for drawing water was breached in the northern side of the cistern’s ceiling. The cistern’s capstone was preserved near the aperture. Potsherds dating to the Byzantine period were discovered in the cistern and the pool, including bowls (Fig. 6:1, 2), a cooking pot (Fig. 6:3) and jugs (Fig. 6:4–6). In the third phase, the cistern was converted into a dwelling (L101). The aperture for drawing water was sealed by construction, the cistern’s capstone was removed from its place and the pool was blocked. The later collapse of the cave’s ceiling on the eastern side served as an entrance into the cave, which was used as a dwelling probably during the last hundred years, based on modern objects found in it, including rifle bullets.
Area B (Fig. 7). The southern part of a cave that was used as a quarry was excavated (Loci 250, 251; depth 5 m; Figs. 8–10). A hewn shaft entrance (diam. 0.8 m, depth 0.7 m) led to the cave on whose bottom (L253), sloping from north to south, were signs of quarrying and quarried stones that were not entirely detached from bedrock. At some point the cave was filled to c. 3 m high with a homogeneous fill of small stones (L252), which were either cleared from the surrounding area or were quarry debris. In a later phase, the western part of the cave’s ceiling collapsed, causing the cave to be filled up to the ceiling with alluvium and eroded stones. The potsherds found on the bottom of the cave and in the fill included mortaria (Fig. 11:1) from the Persian period, jars (Fig. 11:2–4) from the Hellenistic period and bowls (Fig. 11:5, 6), cooking pots (Fig. 11:7, 8) and a jar (Fig. 11:9) from the Byzantine period. Based on the ceramic finds, it seems that the quarry should be dated to the Byzantine period.
A small rock-hewn winepress (L200) was exposed west of the cave. The winepress consisted of a treading floor (diam. c. 1 m) and a collecting vat (diam. 0.5 m). South of the cave was a round rock-cutting (Loci 202, 203; diam. 3 m, depth 1.2 m), which was possibly an installation whose hewing had never been completed. Two cupmarks were discovered on a bedrock surface that was higher than the rock-cutting. A shallow quarry (L204; 4 × 8 m) was exposed slightly to the west of the round rock-cutting.
Area C (Figs. 12, 13). The western part of a rectangular structure (L109; 2.5 × 3.0 m) whose walls (width 0.9 m) were built of two rows of medium and large fieldstones was exposed. The structure was preserved two courses high. The fill inside the building consisted of small stones and soil. Two farming terrace walls (W350, W352), built of large fieldstones and preserved a single course height, were discovered. Wall 350 (exposed length 7 m) comprised a single row of stones, whereas Wall 352 (exposed length 6 m) consisted of two rows of stones. Other ancient features at the site included a shallow quarry (L312; 2 × 8 m), a small rock-hewn winepress (L310) that consisted of a treading floor (diam. 1 m) and a collecting vat (diam. 0.5 m), five cupmarks hewn in the same bedrock surface (L300) and another—hewn separately (L306; diam. 0.3 m).
Area D. Two shallow quarries were excavated (L501—7 × 8 m; L502—5 × 5 m; Fig. 14).