Remains of a quarry and a refuse pit filled with fragments of pottery vessels were exposed in the excavation area (c. 4 × 6 m; Figs. 3, 4), c. 12 m west of the saqiye well. Evidence was also found of a Roman bathhouse, north of the excavation.
Quarry. Two quarry pits were identified in a kurkar layer. One pit (L103; c. 1.1 × 1.4 m, depth 1.6 m) was exposed in the northeastern corner of the excavation area, and just west of it was an incompletely hewn stone (c. 0.30 × 0.45 m, thickness c. 0.25 m), not preserved in its entirety. A second pit (L104) was identified on the eastern side of the water pipe trench while overseeing the work, c. 8 m from the first pit (Fig. 3: Section 2–2). The openings of both pits were at the same elevation, so it is reasonable to assume that they were part of the same quarry that extended to the east. The pits were filled with fine yellowish-gray soil containing several small stones and fragments of pottery vessels characteristic of the Hellenistic period.
(L101; Figs. 3, 4). Although the pit was partly damaged by the earthmoving work, its shape and size could be reconstructed (diam. c. 4 m, depth 0.1–0.5 m). The pit was filled with grayish-orange soil containing fragments of pottery vessels from the Crusader and Mamluk periods and dozens of fragments of saqiye
jars. In addition, a small bronze weight (12.81 g; Fig. 5) was discovered in the pit. The finds ascribed to the Crusader period included several pottery vessel fragments such as a glazed bowl rim (Fig. 6:3), part of a bowl decorated with a dark gray drawing (Fig. 6:4), two cooking pot rims glazed on the inside (Fig. 6:5, 6), a rim of a locally produced jar (Fig. 6:7), a rim of an imported amphora (Fig. 6:8) and a fragment of a glazed lamp (Fig. 6:9). A few sherds of Crusader saqiye
jars were also found, including large fragments (Figs. 6:10, 11; 7) of two vessels reminiscent of vessels from ʽAkko (Stern 2012
:31–32). The sherds from the Mamluk layer were mainly jars and included two different rim types (Fig. 8:1, 2) and a rim (Fig. 8:3) and a base (Fig. 8:4) from two types of jugs.
Most of the saqiye jars (Figs. 7; 8:5–7) found in the excavation are ascribed to the Mamluk assemblage and are characterized by a clear division of the vessel into a tube-shaped upper part and a broad round bottom; between the two parts of these vessels is a narrow or wide depression, used to fasten a rope to the jar.
jars first appeared in Israel during the Roman period and continued to be used until Ottoman times (Ayalon 2000
:221–225). Vessels of this type from the Crusader period were found in ʽAkko and other Crusader sites (Avissar and Stern 2005
:103–104; Stern 2012
jars dating to the Ottoman period were found in ʽAkko (Stern 1997
:66–67). Those dating to the Mamluk period are the first saqiye
jars to be discovered in the country from that time, apart from a single jar discovered at Nizz
anim, which contained a cache of Mamluk coins from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries CE (Ayalon 2000
Bathhouse. Several large ashlars, some of limestone and others of kurkar, were uncovered c. 40 m northeast of the excavation area, in the fill inside a dug trench; remains of plaster and mortar were found above them. Square and round ceramic sections (Fig. 9), their sides coated with the remains of white lime-based mortar, were discovered, indicating these were probably square and round hypocaust columns. Also found were fragments of roof tiles and part of a square pipe (tubulus). Several fragments of pottery vessels, including a cooking-pot rim (Fig. 6:1) and a jar rim (Fig. 6: 2), both characteristic of the Middle Roman period (second–third centuries CE), were also recovered from the fill.
An ashlar quarry in kurkar bedrock was found near the saqiye well on the northwestern fringes of Tel Daʽokh during the first excavation conducted near the mound, exposing for the first time many saqiye jars from the Mamluk period. Evidence of a Roman bathhouse was discovered slightly northeast of the well, indicating that the Roman-Byzantine settlement extended northward, beyond the limits of the tell.