Four half squares (A1–A4) were excavated in accordance with the results of the probe trenches, and two strata (I, II) were identified.
Stratum I. A wall (W11; exposed length 2.5 m, min. width 2.6 m; Figs. 2, 3) oriented east–west was exposed in Square A1. The southern side of the wall was built of fieldstones and the northern side was not exposed. The wall, founded on bedrock, was preserved two courses high. Wall 11 was built into Stratum II, severed it and hence, postdated it. The wall was covered with clayey soil fill that contained a large amount of flint flakes and worn potsherds dating to the Roman period.
A wall (W10; exposed length 5 m, width 2.2 m; Fig. 4) that was oriented east–west, parallel to a moderate slope, was exposed in Square A2. The wall, founded on bedrock, was built of two rows of fieldstones, with a core that consisted of small stones, a little soil, numerous flint flakes and many surface potsherds dating to the Roman period; it was preserved six courses high. The southern side of the wall probably collapsed to the south. Another line of stones that probably belonged to an ancient wall was visible south of W10; however, this could not be determined with certainty.
A wall (W13; exposed length 2.5 m, width 3.2 m; Fig. 5), perpendicular to a gentle slope, was exposed in Square A3. The wall was built of two rows of fieldstones with a fill core, similar to Wall 10. A line of stones could also be seen south of W13, which probably belonged to an ancient wall.
A layer of fill (thickness 0.5 m) was uncovered in Square A4. It was deposited on the bedrock and contained numerous flint fragments, flaked artifacts and cores, which were mostly amorphous.
Stratum II. Fill (thickness 0.6 m) that included a large quantity of flint fragments, flaked artifacts and cores, mostly amorphous was exposed. Many Roman surface potsherds were found in Squares A2 and A3.
Two sub-areas were excavated, comprising one square in the south (B1) and four squares in the north (B2).
Stratum I. A wall (W10B; exposed length 5.5 m; Figs. 6, 7), aligned north–south and preserved a single course high, was exposed in Square B1. The wall was built of a single row of fieldstones founded on a layer of fill (Stratum II). The wall was covered with clayey soil that contained a large quantity of flint flakes and worn surface potsherds dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods.
Two parallel walls, situated 3.5 m apart (W11B, W12B; Figs. 8, 9) and oriented north–south, were exposed in Sub-Area B2. Wall 11B (exposed length 10.5 m, width 2.9–3.2 m), founded on bedrock, was preserved four courses high. The wall was built of two parallel rows of fieldstones with a fill core that contained small stones, a little soil, a large amount of flint flakes and many worn surface potsherds that dated to the Roman and Byzantine periods. Wall 12B (length 13 m, width 2.9-3.2 m), preserved five courses high, was founded on bedrock, like Wall 11B.
A layer of leveled fill (L103, L109) that contained a large amount of small stones, flint flakes and worn surface potsherds dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods, as well as a single sherd that dated to the Abbasid period, was discovered between the walls.
Stratum II. Fill (thickness 0.5 m) was exposed on the bedrock; it contained surface potsherds dating to the Roman period, a large quantity of flint fragments, flaked artifacts and cores, mostly amorphous. A bedrock outcrop that was probably used as a quarry for mining the flint was found in Area B2.
Two walls (W104, W105), oriented east–west, were exposed in the area (4 × 6 m; Figs. 10, 11). The southern wall (W104; length 3.5 m, width 0.52 m) was not straight and haphazardly built of small and medium-sized flint stones. The northern wall (W105; length 6.2 m, width 0.8 m), whose top was clearly visible on the surface, was built unevenly of large limestone and basalt fieldstones; it seems that part of the wall was dismantled in a later phase.
The two exposed walls delimited a road. The excavated roadbed consisted of soil that contained a large amount of small and medium fieldstones, and potsherds from the Roman period. The bedrock was exposed at a depth of c. 0.7 m.
The potsherds in the two strata included fragments of bowls (Fig. 12:1, 2), cooking pots (Fig. 12:3, 4) and jars (Fig. 12:5–8) that dated to the Early Roman period. Flint fragments, flint flakes and worn cores (not drawn) were found in Areas A and B, as well as in the roadbed. The few knapped artifacts were also worn and probably belonged to the Late Chalcolithic period.
Two parallel walls and a fill between them that contained mostly small stones, potsherds dating to the Roman period and flint artifacts, were exposed in all the excavation areas. Some of the walls (W11B for example) were exposed for a considerable distance. No walls perpendicular to the parallel walls were found; hence, the walls are not building remains and no building remains were uncovered in their vicinity. The possibility that these were terrace walls was negated on account of the leveled nature of the area. It turns out that these walls are the remains of a road.
The sections of the road exposed in Area A probably winded around and connected with those uncovered in Area B, thus belonging to the same road. The section of the road revealed in Area C is perpendicular to the other segments and it is part of a side road that was connected to the main road. The location of the excavation areas on the route of an Ottoman road, which appears on the PEF map, has led us to conclude that these are the remains of a single Ottoman road that linked Ramot Menashe with the Jezre’el Valley, and probably continued northward. The Roman period potsherds found in the fill were probably surface fragments in the soil that was used by the builders of the road.