Most of WP 1 (Figs. 2, 3) was excavated. The treading floor (3.5 × 4.0 m) had three rock-hewn sides and the fourth northern side was built of stones. It was plastered with a layer of crushed chalk (thickness c. 0.1 m) and had a rectangular recess in its center for securing the screw. Remains of a hewn channel that led to a collecting vat were visible in the northern part of the western side. The collecting vat was enlarged at a later date and used as an entrance shaft to a cave, hewn beneath the winepress (below).
A few potsherds dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods were collected from the soil accumulations in the winepress.
Winepress WP2 (Figs. 4–6) was hewn in the bedrock. A shallow rectangular recess in the treading floor (2.9 × 3.0 m) could not have been used as a base for anchoring the screw. It may have accommodated a screw head on whose top a press bed was placed. Remains of a hewn channel that led to a square collecting vat (1.15 × 1.30 m, depth 1.5 m) were visible in the western part of the surface. Four steps were hewn in the southern wall of the collecting vat and a cave opening was hewn in its eastern side (below). Above the opening was a small niche, whose function is unclear. A small square depression was located outside the southeastern corner of the treading floor.
Winepress WP3 was found in its initial stages of quarrying. A channel (width 0.1 m) was hewn at the western end of the treading floor and sections of the floor’s sides were hewn in the north and south sides. A circular collecting vat (diam. 0.9 m, depth 0.8 m) was located at the northern end of the winepress.
Winepress WP4 (Fig. 7) included small treading floor and settling pit that were both damaged by Quarry Q4.
The small WP 5 (Fig. 8) included a treading floor (1.0 × 1.6 m) and a settling pit (diam. 0.45 m, depth 0.25 m).
A rock-hewn cist grave (0.55 × 1.75 m, depth c. 0.5 m; Figs. 9, 10) was discovered. A hewn headrest was carved at the western bottom side of the grave and at the eastern bottom side was a breach leading to a cave (C1; not excavated). A square shaft (2.0 × 2.2 m, depth c. 1.6 m) was excavated c. 10 m north of Cave C1. A rock-hewn cave (C2), filled with alluvium and not excavated, was hewn in the eastern side of the shaft.
The collecting vat in WP 1 was enlarged into a square shaft (2.1 × 2.3 m, depth 2 m). A cave (C3; not excavated; see Figs. 2, 3), was hewn in the shaft’s eastern side, below the winepress’ treading floor. A rolling stone (diam. c. 1.2 m) was discovered in the opening of the cave. Potsherds dating to the Roman period were collected from the fill near the opening of the cave to the north; however, fragments of Crusader Albarello Ware and of clay pipes from the Ottoman period were found above the floor of the shaft, indicating that the cave had been plundered and remained open in antiquity.
Cave C4 had a rectangular shaft (0.95 × 1.30 m, depth 0.3–1.2 m) and at the bottom of its southern side was a hewn rectangular opening (0.55 × 0.70 m), which led to a cave filled with an accumulation of hard chalky material that was neither excavated nor documented.
A shaft (2.3 × 2.7 m, depth c. 2.7 m) that led to Cave C5 (Figs. 11, 12) was excavated. Three steps survived on its northern side. Partially open loculi and a partition wall built of ashlars were visible in the chamber, which was discovered full of silt. Potsherds from the Roman period were found above the floor of the cave.
A small opening of a cave that was not excavated (C6; see Fig. 6) was hewn in the eastern side of the collecting vat of WP 2.
Two circular limekilns (K1 and K2; diam. 4 and 5 m; see Fig. 8) were documented, but not excavated. While cleaning the bedrock near Limekiln K1, an opening in the installation’s southern side was observed.
A large quarry (Q1; 7.3 × 7.5 m, max. depth 1 m; Figs. 13, 14), which bore through the entire depth of a nari layer, three rock-cut levels (height c. 0.3 m) that surrounded a main quarrying pit were identified. Quarrying channels, stones that were not detached and negatives of stones in a variety of sizes were hewn in the levels. Potsherds from the Roman and Byzantine periods were collected from the fill in the quarry (L102).
A quarry at the top of the hill (Q2; 4.0 × 5.5 m) was terraced toward the southwest, in accordance with the direction of the slope.
Two levels of shallow rock-cuttings were exposed in a quarry (Q3; 5 × 6 m) and fragments of pottery vessels from the Byzantine period were collected from the quarry fill.
A small quarry (Q4; see Fig. 7) was located on the top of a boulder. Another small quarry (Q5; 1.6 × 1.8 m, depth 0.6 m) in a layer of nari was abandoned when a fractured layer of qirton that had filled with pockets of soil was exposed in it.
All that remained of Quarry Q6 (2.50 × 2.65 m, max. depth c. 1 m) was a square pit, in whose southern part were two hewn steps and one step in its northern side, following the incline of the slope. A square quarry (Q7; 2.8 × 3.2 m; depth 0.2–0.6 m), to the west of Quarry Q6, was similar to it.
Only the eastern part (3 × 4 m, depth 1.7 m; Fig. 15) of a large quarry (Q8; c. 4 × 11 m) was excavated. The quarry had six hewn steps (thickness 0.25–0.30 m), three of which penetrated the top of the qirton layer. The severance channels and detachment marks indicate that different size stones were hewn.
A shallow quarry (Q9; 3.5 × 3.7 m, depth 0.6 m) with three quarrying steps (each c. 0.2 m thick) was discovered in a layer of nari. The quarrying and severance channels indicate that blocks of the same size (0.4 × 0.6 m) were cut. The nearby quarry to the west (Q10; 3.5 × 4.0 m, depth c. 0.3 m) was also shallow, with quarrying marks of blocks similar to Quarry Q9.
Northeast of Limekiln K1 was a small rectangular rock-hewn trough (A1; 0.5 × 1.1 m, depth c. 0.3 m; see Fig. 8).
A small oil extraction installation (A2; Fig. 16), composed of three small pits, was discovered on a bedrock surface. Two of the pits merged, one deeper than the other, and the third pit was connected to them from the west via a small perforated hole in the bedrock.
A modern terrace built on top of the bedrock surface delimited the installation on the east.
A concentration of small installations (A3) included a shallow rock-hewn shaft (diam. 1.1 m, depth 0.8 m) and a large cupmark (diam. 0.7 m, depth 0.3 m) to the east; further east were two other adjacent cupmarks (diam. 0.5 m; depth 0.1 and 0.3 m).
Next to the southern side of the Cave C5 shaft was a round hewn installation (A6; diam. c. 0.8 m) whose northern half had only survived. A small round trough (A7; 0.7 × 1.1 m, depth c. 0.5 m) was discovered near Installation A6. Further along to the west of Quarry Q8 was a meticulously hewn cupmark in the bedrock (A8; diam. c. 0.55 m, depth c. 0.6 m), which was damaged by the quarry and therefore predated it. A small cupmark (A4; diam. 0.35 m, depth 0.3 m) hewn in a layer of nari and a small rectangular trough (A5; 0.65 × 1.42 m, depth c. 0.5 m) hewn in bedrock were also discovered.
Evidence indicating that the area was cultivated in several periods was found. The earliest evidence consists of plowed notches found on either side of Quarry Q3, which were severed when the quarry was operated; hence the notches predated the quarry. Later, after the quarries were no longer in use, they were intentionally filled with stones and stone dressing debris and covered over with farming soil, apparently to prepare the area for cultivation. Other evidence consists of a terrace wall (W1; length 4.1 m, width 0.4–0.8 m) built of a single course of especially large fieldstones, founded on the bedrock. The northern side of the wall was abutted by a layer of clayey soil that contained small fieldstones, stone dressing debris and crushed limestone.
A few potsherds were found while cleaning the installations and bedrock surfaces. The potsherds from the Roman period consisted of Kefar Hananya vessels, including bowls (Fig. 17:1, 2) and a cooking pot (Fig. 17:3); jars (Fig. 17:4, 5) that were produced in a workshop, excavated nearby (HA-ESI 121), and two jars, one was locally produced (Fig. 17:6) and the other—Phoenician (Fig. 17:7); all these were recovered from the accumulations in WP 1; and a flask (Fig. 17:8) was found above the floor in Cave C5.
Several fragments of pottery vessels from the Byzantine period were retrieved from the accumulations inWinepress WP 1 and the fill in Quarry Q3. Noteworthy among these are a group of Late Roman Ware bowls (Fig. 18:1–3), a krater (Fig. 18:4), two cooking pots, one open (Fig. 18:5) and the other closed (Fig. 18:6), and a lid (Fig. 18:7).
An Albarello base (Fig. 18:8) from the Crusader period and two red-burnished clay pipes (Fig. 18:9, 10) dating to the Ottoman period (nineteenth century CE) were found at the bottom of the fill in the shaft of Cave 3.
The excavation results point to an agricultural area abounding in installations, some of which were used for construction and some for processing agricultural produce. The area was also used for interring the dead in burial caves. The few fragments of pottery vessels show that the activity at the site occurred primarily during the Late Roman and Byzantine periods.