Stratum I. The primary feature associated with Stratum I is a stone surface (L902), situated directly below the modern surface (Fig. 3). This surface is composed of a dense matrix of small stones and pottery sherds (Fig. 4). A few medium-sized stones in the southern area of the square are suggestive of poorly preserved architectural remains, possibly of installations. Considering the close proximity of the ancient remains to the modern courtyard, it is conceivable that these installations were leveled and their collapse was included in the makeup of this surface. Numerous pottery sherds and flint artifacts, including Canaanean blades (see Appendix), were found between the stones of Surface 902. The Stratum I diagnostic pottery sherds originating from Surface 902 include two bowls of Gray Burnished Ware (GBW; Fig. 5:1, 2); holemouth jars with a simple or thickened rim (Fig. 5:3–6), some with incisions below the rim and some bearing red slip; holemouth jars with a squared-off, thickened rim (Fig. 5:7, 8), some with incised decoration below the rim (Fig. 5:8); flaring rim pithoi (Fig. 5:9–12); a store jar base with a red-painted decoration (Fig. 5:13); and a red-slipped ledge handle with a perforation in the center (Fig.5:14). A basalt stone bowl from the same context has an everted rim (Fig. 5:15).
Stratum II. Directly below the Stratum I remains are a number of rock-hewn installations (L903, L907–L909; Figs. 6, 7). Installation 903 is a circular depression (diam. 0.4 m, depth 0.3 m) whose interior walls were partially lined with small stones and pottery sherds, including a holemouth vessel (Fig. 10:1). Installation 907 (Fig. 8) consists of a large circular depression (diam. 0.8 m, depth 0.2 m) abutting a smaller but deeper circular depression (diam. 0.3–0.4 m, depth 0.53 m) that was lined with large fragments of a storage jar (Fig. 10:3). Two additional smaller depressions (each 0.17 m diam.) were found on each side of the larger depression. One meter south of Installation 907, an additional stone depression (L908; diam. 0.30–0.34 m, depth 0.5 m) was directly in line with Installation 907, suggesting that all of the Stratum II installations were functionally interconnected. Installation 907 may represent an early type of olive press consisting of a pressing basin and a collecting vat. The dimensions of Installation 908, including the second deeper depression in its floor, suggest that it also functioned as a collecting vat for the separation of water from the oil.
Feature 909, possibly a cave (depth 0.5 m; Fig. 9), was not fully excavated. It yielded a holemouth (Fig. 10:2).
The pottery found in association with the Stratum II installations includes GBW bowls (not illustrated), two holemouth vessels (Fig. 10:1, 2), and a storage jar whose red-slipped exterior was poorly preserved (Fig. 10:3).
The excavation revealed rock-hewn agricultural installations on the hill slopes east of the perennial spring. The pottery assemblage retrieved from Strata I and II consists of vessel types and wares that place it within the chronological framework of the EB IA period. Notable, however, is the discovery of a single Chalcolithic ossuary leg fragment (Fig. 10:4), which suggests that as-yet undiscovered burial caves dating to this period are to be found in the nearby vicinity. The flint tools include Canaanean blades used for harvesting as well as a number of ad hoc tools which served a myriad of daily functions.
The excavation results add to the accumulating data concerning the fortified EBIA settlement at Kafr Kanna, which is estimated to have spanned c. 20 hectares. The core of the settlement was built up around the Kanna spring and extended to the east, west and south. The location of the current excavation on the hillslope overlooking the spring, streambed and the fortified EBIA settlement is significant for investigating activity areas for processing agricultural produce beyond the city wall, more specifically for olive oil production. A burial cave (Fig. 1:5) excavated c. 100 m. to the east of the present excavation suggests that contemporary burials are to be found in rock-hewn caves farther up the hill.