Early periods. Potsherds from MB II, such as a krater (Fig. 3:1) and the Iron Age, found in the upper strata, were apparently swept over from the slope.
Hellenistic period. A wall preserved five courses high (W3; length 2.7 m. width 0.5 m, preserved height 1.9 m; Fig. 4) was exposed. It was oriented east–west and built of coarsely hewn hard limestone (30 × 38 × 48 cm), with smaller stones fitting between them and arranged in courses. A floor (L21; Fig. 5) of flat fieldstones (c. 10 × 15 cm) abutted the northern side of W3. A bronze coin dating to the reign of Ptolemy II (286–245 BCE; IAA 106436) was found on the floor, as well as pottery vessels, which were also discovered beneath the floor, including a bowl (Fig. 3:2), cooking pots (Fig. 3:3, 4) and jars from the Hellenistic period (Fig. 3:5–8). The floor was covered with a layer of soil (L20) after it and W3 were no longer in use.
Early Roman period. Potsherds dating to the first century CE attest to the settlement’s occupation in this period.
Middle Roman Period. Two construction phases ascribed to this period were discerned. In the early phase, a wall (W17; length 2.1 m, width c. 1 m, preserved height 1.5 m; Fig. 6) of limestone fieldstones (30 × 30 × 35 cm), was built next to the northern face of W3. A floor (L19) of tamped chalk abutted it. A niche dug into the floor contained Kefar Hananya-type bowls (Fig. 3:9–11), a Sikhin-type bowl (Fig. 3:12), a jar (Fig. 3:13) and jugs (Fig. 3:14, 15) that dated to the Middle Roman period.
In the later phase, surface was leveled with a thick fill layer of soil, building stones and fieldstones (L18) and another floor of crushed chalk (L15; Fig. 7) was installed. The ceramic artifacts in the fill layer and on Floor 15 were similar to those recovered from the lower chalk floor (L19).
Byzantine period. The southeastern corner of a building was exposed. A wall (W2; length 3.25 m, width 0.8 m, preserved height c. 2.5 m; Fig. 8) was built of well-dressed large stones (35 × 40 × 60 cm) with smaller stones between them that were arranged in courses. The bottom course was built of even larger stones and the western face of the wall was built of small stones and seems to have been the inside of the wall. The wall was founded within a deep foundation trench that had cut through the remains of the Middle Roman and Hellenistic periods (L7; Fig. 9). Two courses of large masonry stones were exposed of the corner wall (W12; length 2 m, width 0.7 m, preserved height 1 m) that was perpendicular to W2. Collapse of large building stones (L8; Fig. 10) that probably originated from these walls was exposed inside the structure.
The ceramic finds dated to the end of the Byzantine period and included Late Roman Red Ware bowls (Fig. 11:1–3), cooking pots and a lid (Fig. 11:4–6) and jars (Fig. 11:7, 8). Fragments of glass vessels that dated to the end of the Byzantine period or the Umayyad period were also found (Gorin-Rosen, below).
The impressive remains of the wall point to a large building had stood there. It seems that the building collapsed and was abandoned still within the Byzantine period. It was not possible to evaluate the nature of the building due to the limited scope of the excavation.
Mamluk period. A short section of a wall, one stone wide (W6; 0.5 × 1.1 m), which was built of different size stones, some in secondary use, was exposed. The wall was built on the severed western end of W3 (Hellenistic) and rested on the southeastern corner of the Byzantine building. A crushing stone (memmel) that belonged to an olive press was incorporated, in secondary use, in the eastern end of W3 (Fig. 12). A shallow channel was hewn across half of the crushing stone, draining into its center hole. A few potsherds from the Mamluk period were collected, including bowls (Fig. 11:9, 10) and a cooking pot (Fig. 11:11).
Ottoman period. Two pits (Loci 9, 10; Fig. 13) that were probably used as refuse pits were found. They contained an assortment of potsherds, including a pipe (Fig. 11:12) and a fragment of a Rashaya el-Fukhar jug (?; Fig. 11:13).