During March 2003, a survey preceding development was conducted (Permit No. A-3864*; map ref. NIG 177060–194482/645185–653973; OIG 127060–144482/145185–153973; Fig. 1), prior to paving a section of Highway 431 from the ‘Anava Interchange to the Rishon Le-Ziyyon sand dunes. The survey, on behalf of the Antiquities Authority, was performed by M. Haiman, O. Shmueli, L. Barda and M. Ajami.
Section 1 (‘Anava Interchange; map ref. NIG 194080/645341; OIG 144080/145341).
A rock-hewn water cistern that had a circular opening (3); a farming terrace; a concentration of potsherds and small stones and a round open bedrock-hewn quarry (circumference 100 m, depth 3 m; ). A similar but smaller quarry (circumference 5 m) was nearby. A wall built of two rows of fieldstones with a core of small stones (11) and next to it, a meager potsherd scattering (diam. c. 100 m) and a circular cupmark (12).
Surveyed between Sections 1 and 2 were:
A meager scattering of flint tools (14).
A meager scattering of tesserae, fragments of glass vessels and potsherds that dated to the Roman, Mamluk and Ottoman periods (16–18).
A scattering of potsherds and flint implements in a wadi channel (19).
A ruin, which had previously been surveyed, included a concentration of masonry stones, rock-hewn installations and potsherds from the Byzantine, Early Islamic, Crusader, Mamluk and Ottoman periods (41).
Section 2 (Moshav Yashresh-Juwarish; map ref. NIG 186966/647256; OIG 136966/147256).
Remains of the Gezer-Ramla aqueduct (Qanat Bint el Kafir), oriented north–south, on a dirt mound (length 250 m, width 2 m, height 0.3 m; [22, 23]). A concentration of small fieldstones on surface (0.2 × 0.2 m) was covered with gray bonding material and remains of plaster. Potsherds dating to the Early Islamic period were scattered near the aqueduct (20).
Section 3 (Netzer–Juwarish; map ref. NIG 18512/64760; OIG 13512/14760).
Antiquities at the top of a hill included dressed masonry stones, scattered potsherds and large tesserae from the Late Roman or Byzantine period (28).
The remains of a structure (5 × 5 m) from the Ottoman period were built of dressed stones and preserved to a height of the ceiling (33). The entrance to the building faced east and in the three other walls were elongated openings. The inner and outer walls were coated with plaster. Near the southern wall was a plastered courtyard in which a square opening led to an underground water reservoir. Potsherds that dated to the Early Islamic (?) and the Mamluk-Ottoman periods were scattered around the building (30, 31).
Section 4 (Be’er Ya‘aqov–Palmahim; map ref. NIG 18370/648678; OIG 13370/148678).
A scattering of potsherds and flint flakes, next to Be’er Ya‘aqov (37, 38).
Nearby was a potsherd scattering from the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods (36).