Stratum II
Quarry. Remains of a quarry (L108) for the extraction of hard limestone ashlars were exposed. The rock-cutting remains and the negatives in the bedrock indicate that the quarried stones were large and rectangular (length 0.75–1.00 m, width 0.6–0.8 m, height 0.2–0.6 m; Fig. 3). The margins of the quarry are straight and it is possible that it served for agricultural work. The quarry, which was no longer used by the end of the Roman period, was overlain with gray soil fill and small fieldstones (Loci 109, 111) that contained numerous potsherds from the Byzantine period.
Cisterns. A bedrock surface (2.2 × 2.4 m) was exposed in the northwestern corner of the quarry. An unplastered cistern, hewn in the center of the surface, was not completely excavated (L110; max. diam. 1.7 m, depth in excess of 2.5 m). The cistern was bell-shaped; its upper part was narrow and hewn in a layer of nari (diam. 0.75 m, depth c. 1 m; Fig. 4), while its bottom was wide and mostly hewn in soft chalk. The cistern was filled with gray soil that contained fieldstones and potsherds from the Roman and Byzantine periods; it probably continued to be used in Stratum I.
East of Cistern 110 was a bell-shaped cistern coated with hydraulic plaster (L118; Fig. 5). The upper part of the cistern was destroyed during the construction of Stratum I and it was filled with gray soil that contained potsherds from the Byzantine period.
Wall. The southern part of the quarry was enclosed with a wall, oriented east–west (W101; Fig. 6), whose eastern part continued beyond the limits of the excavation and its western part was incorporated in bedrock. The wall, founded on soft limestone bedrock, was preserved two courses high. The southern side of the wall was built of large nari ashlar stones while its northern face consisted of various size fieldstones. It seems that this was the outer wall of a large building, possibly a farmhouse.
Stratum I
Three units of a rectangular plan (A–C) were built on the remains of the quarry and Cistern 118 (Stratum II); an open courtyard was located to their east (Fig. 7).
Unit A (length 3.3 m, min. width 1.4 m) was delimited by Wall 102 in the west, Wall 104 in the east and Wall 103 in the south; its northern part extended beyond the excavation area. The walls, preserved a single course high above the floor level, were built of a single row of nari ashlar stones and founded on bedrock. The eastern part of W103 was founded on a layer of fill that partly filled Cistern 118 from Stratum II; in this section the wall’s foundation extended to a depth of four courses (Fig. 8). An opening (width 1.3 m) was set in the middle of W103.
Unit B (3.0 × 3.3 m) was damaged by modern activity; it seems to have been surrounded by walls on all sides (Walls 101–104) and it had at least two openings, one set in W103 and the other in W102.
Unit C (width 2.3 m, min. length 3.1 m) was delineated in the south by W101 and in the east by W102; its western part continued beyond the limits of the excavation. The southern part of W102, which abutted W101, was bedrock hewn.
The floors in the three units partly consisted of bedrock and partly of tamped earth. The floors were overlain with gray soil fill and fieldstones that contained potsherds from the Byzantine period.
Courtyard. The courtyard exposed to the east of the built units was delineated in the south by W101 and had a floor of gray earth and small fieldstones (L112). The gray soil of the floor bedding (L115) and the cracks between the bedrock outcrops contained potsherds that dated to the Byzantine period.