Remains of walls were not traced on the surface and the ceramic finds included glazed bowls, vessels from the Rashaya el-Fukhar workshop and pipes that dated to the seventeenth century CE.
A rectangular structure (6 × 13 m) and a number of courtyards alongside it were uncovered. The mud-brick walls of the building were set on a foundation of two courses of basalt stones that had no dug-in foundations. The openings, which were apparently set at the top level of the foundation and in the mud-brick courses, were not preserved. The erosion of the bricks left behind a layer of friable mud-brick material, rich in organic remains. The building had a mortar roof that was borne atop wooden posts; the burnt remains of one post were discovered. The western wall of the building collapsed and a new wall was built in its place, slightly contracting the building. The southern wall was destroyed when a refuse pit was dug in the 1970s. It seems that the building was demolished by a mighty conflagration and its ceiling collapsed.
Walled courtyards were exposed to the south and west of the building’s main hall. Six ovens were found on the floor in three of the courtyards (Fig. 3). These were made of burnt material and the vent hole in one of them was preserved. The sixth tabun (oven) was built below the courtyard’s floor, damaging wall remains from Stratum 3. A round installation of small stones, which contained thick layers of ash, was built next to the southern wall of one of the courtyards.
The ceramic finds included glazed bowls, as well as open and closed vessels that were probably manufactured at the Rashaya el-Fukhar workshop. Pipes were recovered only from the upper part of the stratum. A number of iron arrowheads and coins were also found.
Sections of foundations that stood two courses high were discovered below the Stratum 2 walls. These were meant for mud-brick walls that belonged to a building whose partial plan was different than that of Stratum 2. The pottery vessels included glazed bowls and closed Rashaya el-Fukhar vessels.
Below the walls of Stratum 3 and extending down to bedrock were the accumulated ruins and remains of earthen floors with vessels, but without wall remains. The pottery vessels were similar to those from Stratum 3.
The results of the excavation indicate that this section of the site was first occupied in the latter part of the Mamluk or the beginning of the Ottoman periods (sixteenth– seventeenth centuries CE). Changes to the buildings occurred during Stratum 2, with the construction of a large edifice whose plan differed from the regular rural-type house. The building included a long hall and a number of courtyards. It was probably a khan, which was destroyed by a mighty conflagration. A modern refuse pit was dug in its southern part and the fragmentary walls in its western part were probably destroyed in an earthquake, although evidence of this event is insufficient.
The ceramic finds are of great importance. Strata 3 and 4 contained vessels that were found for the first time in the region during the Mamluk period. However, vessel types that were found in Mamluk assemblages in Zefat are missing and it therefore seems that the finds belong to the Early Ottoman period. Rashaya el-Fukhar, which was the manufacturing center for vessels discovered in the excavation, is located on the western fringes of the Hermon and its products were distributed throughout the northern part of the country. Two kinds of vessels whose provenance is probably Rashaya el-Fukhar were discovered. Pottery vessels in Stratum 1 were characteristic of rural production and they continued to be made until the modern era. Similar vessels from Strata 2–4, made of non-‘metallic’ fabric, were decorated with colors more faded that than on the later Rashaya el-Fukhar vessels. Such vessels were also discovered in the Mamluk assemblages of Zefat and it therefore appears that the production of pottery vessels at Rashaya el-Fukhar had already begun in this period and its development could be traced within the assemblage. While Stratum 3 contained only closed vessels, an increase in the number of open vessels was clearly discerned in Stratum 2.