Potsherds dating to the Iron Age, Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods and the Middle Ages (J. Porath, S. Dar and S. Applebaum, eds., Qadmoniot Emeq Hefer, 1985, p. 236), had previously been collected at the site. The digging of the refuse pit on the tell revealed a large cluster of potsherds from the Late Roman and Byzantine periods, which included numerous fragments of Samaritan-type lamps (Qadmoniot Emeq Hefer, pp. 235–236). The location of the tell near Nahal Alexander had attracted settlers already in ancient times. Three sites (Tel Shatri in Burgeta, ‘Olesh and a site near Nahal Ometz) and a cemetery (in Qibbuz Ma‘abarot) that dated to the Chalcolithic period (Qadmoniot Emeq Hefer, p. 44) were discovered near the tell. Potsherds from the Chalcolithic period were collected along the southern side of the tell (Prof. R. Gophna, pers. comm.). Based on the evidence reported by local residents, a Chalcolithic site is located in the northwestern part of the waste-water reservoir, next to the tell. In the nearby ruins of Burgeta (Burj el-‘Atut; Khirbat el-Burj) remains and a tower from the Crusader period were discovered (ESI 2:17–18).
Early Roman period (first century BCE–first century CE). A wall (W113) and a floor that abutted it (L108) were exposed in the northern square (A5; Fig. 2). The wall, built of medium-sized fieldstones that were placed on a soil layer (L122), was preserved 1.2 m high. Below the floor was a soil fill (thickness 0.2 m), apparently placed for the purpose of leveling the area. The fill contained a large quantity of potsherds that were mostly fragments of jars and amphorae, the latest of which dated to the first century CE. Noteworthy among the fragments were those of amphorae that came from the region of Campagna in Italy (Fig. 3:15, 16). On the base of one of the amphorae was a stamped impression bearing the Latin name HERACL (Figs. 4, 5). The impression is dated from the end of the first century BCE to the middle of the first century CE and it originated from Latium in central Italy. Among the potsherds were a few fragments of Terra Sigilatta vessels, including a bowl from Pergamon (Fig. 3:2), as well as fragments of local vessels, including a krater (Fig. 3:1), jars (Fig. 3:3–11) and jugs (Fig. 3:12–14).
Byzantine period (sixth–seventh centuries CE). Four phases, dating to the Byzantine period, were exposed in the two southern squares (A1, C1; Fig. 2). A winepress (Square A1), which consisted of a treading floor paved with a coarse white mosaic (L126) and a stepped settling pit (L128), were ascribed to the first phase. A built wall to the west of the treading floor was completely robbed during the third phase. The treading floor of the winepress was partitioned by a wall (W124), built of small and medium fieldstones during the second phase. The wall that was built west of the treading floor also continued to be used in this phase. A wall (W115), adjacent and parallel to the robbed wall, was built in the third phase, probably using some stones from the robbed wall. The bottom course of W115 was slightly higher than the level of the winepress’ mosaic floor in the earlier phases. The southwestern corner of a white mosaic floor (L120) was discovered in Square C1. It was delimited on the west by a wall (W123) that was coated with grayish white plaster. The winepress of the first two phases was probably relocated to the west in the third phase; the corner of Floor 120 was part of the winepress’ treading floor, whose eastern side was delimited by W115. It is also possible that Floor 120 was part of a collecting vat that belonged to the winepress, in which case W115 may have belonged to the fourth phase. A wall (W114), which had cut Floor 120 of the previous phase, and a floor of stream pebbles (L111), both exposed in Square C1 next to the southern balk, were ascribed to the fourth phase, as well as the eastern part of a circular vat, near the western balk of Square C1, which was not excavated and apparently served as an industrial installation (diam. 1.2 m, height 0.8 m). The ceramic finds from the four phases, dating to the sixth–seventh centuries CE, were homogenous and included cooking vessels (Fig. 6:1, 2), jars, many of which were bag-shaped (Fig. 6:3–10), a jar with a high neck (Fig. 6:11) and a saqiyye jar (Fig. 6:12).
The diameters of the pits discovered in Squares A7 and G6 were greater than the size of the squares; they contained potsherds, mostly fragments of jars and amphorae that dated to the Early Roman period. Some potsherds dated to the Chalcolithic period, as well as to other periods, including bowls (Fig. 7:1, 2) from Middle Bronze IIB, a krater (Fig. 7:3) from the Iron Age, mortaria and jars (Fig. 7:4–6) from the Persian period, jar and amphora (Fig. 7:7, 8) from the second century CE and a saqiyye vessel (Fig. 7:9) from the third–fourth centuries CE. A coin that dated to the reign of Agrippa I (41–42 CE; IAA 108952) came from the pit in Square G6 and on the surface, outside the area of the squares, a coin that dated to the Early Islamic period (IAA 108953) was found.