1 (Map ref. 201085/643318). A tomb with a front rectangular courtyard (1.75 × 2.00 m; Figs. 2, 3) was hewn in a bedrock slope. The stone above the rock-cut opening leading into the tomb was delicately dressed (width 1 m; depth 0.1 m). A simple winepress was hewn in a sloping bedrock surface 4 m to the north. The installation consisted of a treading floor (diam. 2 m, depth 0.1 m) that drained into a collecting vat (diam. 0.75 m, max. depth 0.7 m).
2 (Map ref. 201071/643585). A courtyard (2.9 × 4.6 m; Figs. 4, 5) was exposed on a bedrock surface. The quarrying of the courtyard was incomplete; a bedrock block remained in its center. Severance channels of additional hewn stones found around the block allow us to estimate the size of the stones that were produced there (0.35–0.40 × 0.35–0.40 m). Two rows of stones were removed from a severance channel (depth 0.9 m) located south of the surface. A shallow right angle cut in the rock was discerned in the northeast of the surface, in the corner of the courtyard—evidence of advanced planning. A tomb’s façade (height 2.5 m) was hewn west of the courtyard: three dressed square surfaces, hewn one within the other in the bedrock surface, and an arched opening (diam. 0.8 m) leading into the tomb. The tomb’s interior was not excavated; nevertheless, its plan resembles that of Second Temple-period tombs.
3 (Map ref. 200945/643168). A hewn entrance (length 2 m) in the front of a cave led to an opening (1.2 × 1.3 m), from which steps descended into the cave: two steps built of dressed stone slabs (0.4 × 1.0 m) and a third step hewn in the soft bedrock. The cave was not excavated; therefore it was not possible to date it or determine if it was used for burial. About 0.5 m east of the hewn steps was an elliptical pit, possibly granary (diam. 1.00–1.25 m, depth 1 m) that predated the steps and the cave.
4 (Map ref. 201016/643290). A winepress consisting of a treading floor (depth 0.10–0.35 m; Fig. 6) that drained into a collecting vat (depth 0.5 m) was hewn in a bedrock surface that sloped to the south. A rock-cut cupmark (diam. 0.5 m, depth 0.3 m) was found north of the winepress, and another (diam. 0.25 m, depth 0.15 m) was hewn to the east. West of the winepress was a square, shallow surface (depth 0.15 m) where grapes were probably stored prior to treading. Around the winepress were three rock-cuttings or natural openings that led to an underground cavity located beneath the bedrock surface where the winepress was hewn.
5 (Map ref. 200972/643425). A winepress consisting of a treading floor (max. depth 0.5 m; Fig. 7) and a collecting vat (depth 0.5 m) was hewn in a bedrock surface that sloped southward. A layer of dark plaster mixed with stone inclusions that dates from the Early Roman period survived in the northwestern corner and on the northern wall of the treading floor. Remains of a cupmark (diam. 0.15 m, depth 5 cm) can be discerned in the center of the treading floor.
6 (Map ref. 201016/643355). A winepress was hewn in a bedrock surface that sloped southward. It consisted of a treading floor (diam. 2.7 m; Fig. 8) that drained through two hewn perforations (diam. 0.15 m, depth 0.3 m) into a rectangular collecting vat whose southern wall was destroyed. East of the winepress was a hewn cupmark (diam. 0.3 m, depth 0.15 m) that was probably used in the production of wine.
7 (Map ref. 201062/643558). A winepress consisting of a treading floor (max. depth 0.3 m; Figs. 9, 10) that drained through a passage (diam. 0.15 m, width 0.1 m) into a rectangular collecting vat (depth 0.9–1.1 m) was hewn in a bedrock surface that sloped northward. Small hewn rectangular notches (0.05 × 0.10 m) found on both sides of the collecting vat may have served for a base for the hinge of the lid that covered the vat. A shallow depression (diam. 0.2 m, depth 0.1 m) hewn in the collecting vat’s northern wall opened into the vat; the treaded grapes may have been placed there to maximize the amount of must extracted from them. It is possible that several other rock-cuttings and natural depressions around the treading floor were used for a variety of purposes in the winemaking process. A cupmark (diam. 0.2 m, depth 0.14 m) was located north of the winepress.
8 (Map ref. 201019/643528). A winepress hewn in a high bedrock surface consisted of a treading floor (1.5 × 1.8 m) cut in a natural bedrock slope so as to drain into an elliptical collecting vat (diam. 1.10–1.25 m, depth 0.8 m). A shallow, hewn cupmark (diam. 0.5 m, depth 0.1 m) located c. 0.3 m west of the collecting vat, opened into the collecting vat and was probably used for extracting additional must from the crushed grapes.
9 (Map ref. 200862/643568). A winepress was hewn in a bedrock surface that sloped northward. The installation consisted of a rectangular treading floor (depth 0.3 m; Fig. 11) that drained into a small collecting vat (depth 0.3–0.4 m, depth 0.6 m). A vat (diam. 0.4, depth 0.3 m) that was hewn nearby was probably used to clarify the must.
10 (Map ref 200988/643405). A square winepress was hewn in a bedrock surface that sloped southward. It comprised a treading floor (max. depth 0.45 m; Fig. 12) with a cupmark (diam. 0.2 m, depth 5 cm), probably a sump, in its center A hewn channel (diam. 0.10–0.15 m, length 0.4 m) led from the treading floor to a square collecting vat (max. depth 0.9 m) with a sump (diam. 0.15 m, depth 0.1 m) at its base. Surrounding the collecting vat in the southern wall of the treading floor was by a shallow rock-cutting (depth 0.1 m), possibly indicting the course of a partition wall (length 1.9 m width 0.4 m). Two channels intended for diverting runoff were hewn north and south of the winepress. Water was conveyed via the northern channel to the collecting vat, which was probably used for watering flocks of sheep and goats in the summer.
11 (Map ref. 200986/643547). A winepress consisting of a treading floor (max. depth 0.2 m; Fig. 13) was hewn in an eastward-sloping bedrock outcrop. Parallel to the treading floor’s eastern wall ran a hewn, shallow channel (0.2 × 2.5 m, depth 5 cm), from which another channel (0.1 × 0.7 m, depth 0.1 m) emerged at a right angle; it conveyed the must to a collecting vat (depth 0.95 m). A gutter-like channel (length 0.2 m, width 0.4 m) was hewn in the vat’s opening, and a bedrock ledge (width 0.15 m) was hewn on its northern side; it may have supported a covering set on top of it.
12 (Map ref. 200961/643443). A winepress consisting of a square treading floor (depth 0.2 m; Figs. 14, 15) and a collecting vat (depth 0.6 m) was hewn in a bedrock surface. A small pit (diam. 0.15 m, depth 0.1 m) hewn in the floor of the collecting vat served to drain the must. At the bottom of the collecting vat was a round limestone (diam. 0.3 m, length 0.8), probably a weight used in extracting must from the grapes. Several holes (diam. 0.15 m, depth 5 cm) were hewn in the bedrock sides of the winepress; these may have been meant for wooden posts that supported a temporary roof, probably for shading the winepress and its workers.
13 (Map ref. 200881/643568). A winepress consisting of a square treading floor (1 × 1 m, depth 5 cm) and an elliptical collecting vat (diam. 0.5–0.6 m, depth 0.1–0.3 m) was hewn in a bedrock surface (1.7 × 2.3 m; Fig. 16).
14 (Map ref. 200818/643052). A winepress comprising a treading floor (1.80 × 2.15 m, max. depth 0.4 m) and an elliptical collecting vat (diam. 0.8–1.0 m, depth 0.8 m) was hewn in a bedrock surface. An elliptical cupmark (diam. 0.25–0.35 m, depth 0.1 m) was hewn in the vat’s floor. About 3 m to the south were two rock-cut cupmarks—one elliptical (diam. 0.2–0.5 m, depth 0.2 m), one round (diam. and depth 0.2 m).
15 (Map ref. 200962/643161). Two plaster sections were in preserved in the center of a rectangular treading floor (3.4 × 3.8 m, depth 0.3–0.9 m) belonging to a rock-hewn winepress. The installation probably dates to Byzantine period. A passage (diam. 0.2 m) hewn in the southern wall of the treading floor (0.5 m below the upper end) led to a large collecting vat (0.9 × 1.3 m, depth 1.2 m). An incomplete square installation (0.9 × 0.9 m; depth 0.4 m) was quarried into the eastern wall of the treading floor.
16 (Map ref. 201095/643044). A small winepress was hewn in the bedrock surface. It comprised a small treading floor (1 × 1 m, depth 0.1 m) that drained into an elliptical collecting vat (diam. 1.5–2.0 m, depth 0.3 m), at the bottom of which was a cupmark (diam. 0.5 m, depth 0.1 m) that served as a sump. Two cupmarks (diam. 0.2 m, depth 0.1 m) were hewn east of the winepress.
17 (Map ref. 201086/642986). A winepress consisting of a treading floor (2.3 × 2.8 m, max. depth 0.25 m) that drained into an elliptical collecting vat (diam. 0.75–1.20 m, depth 0.7 m) was hewn in a bedrock surface that slopes gently westward. A cupmark (diam. 0.2 m, depth 0.1 m) was shewn in the vat’s floor. Three cupmarks (diam. 0.18, depth 0.1 m) were located north of the winepress.
18 (Map ref. 200997/643310). Remains of a field tower (3.0 × 3.5 m) built of stones (max. size 0.6 × 0.8 × 1.2 m) were found on a bedrock surface. The fill found inside the field tower consisted of small stones (height 0.25 m) that overlay the bedrock.
19 (Map ref. 201080/643353). Remains of a field tower (4.7 × 5.0 m) built on a protruding bedrock surface were preserved to a height of one course. The building was constructed of stones (max. size 0.7 × 0.7 × 0.9 m) that enclosed a foundation of earth and small stones. Several pottery sherds dating to the Hellenistic period were found.
20 (Map ref. 200874/643561). A field tower (4.3 × 4.6 m; Fig. 17) built of large fieldstones (0.6 × 0.7 × 1.0 m) was founded on a level bedrock surface. The entrance into the structure was probably by way of an opening (width 0.7 m) installed in its western wall.
21 (Map ref. 200923/643421). A field tower (3.6 × 4.3 m; Fig. 18) was built of dry construction on a bedrock surface, utilizing medium (0.5 × 0.7 m) and large (0.7 × 1.0 m) fieldstones, of which one course (max. height 1 m) survived. The eastern wall of the field tower was part of a long wall (several dozen meters in length) built in a north–south direction, which probably served as an enclosure wall.
22, 23 (Map ref. 200803/643049, 201098/643044). Two cisterns were documented. They were not completely excavated, and it was not possible to date them.
Additionally, six clusters of numerous cupmarks were discovered. These may have been used by the residents of the adjacent Chalcolithic-period site (van den Brink 2005). Also documented were thirteen stone clearance heaps and other stone heaps, all indicative of intensive cultivation on the small tracts of land situated between the bedrock surfaces; all of the stone piles were set on bedrock surfaces that could not be utilized for agriculture. Pottery sherds that date to the Hasmonean period were found in trial trenches excavated in one of the heaps, and sherds from the Byzantine period were found in another.
The many installations that were discovered in the Buchman Compound were probably part of the agricultural hinterland belonging to nearby Horbat Hadat and Khirbat Umm el-‘Umdan. Similar installations were revealed in the wake of development work throughout the vicinity of Lod in the Shephelah. The multitude of winepresses indicates that the main branch of agriculture was the growing of grapes, which were used in wine production.