A square opened between the two trenches (Fig. 1) revealed several occupation levels dating to the Abbasid period. The upper level was a very thin plaster floor (L10), preserved in sections throughout the entire square. The floor was damaged by foundations of a modern building that had been constructed on the lot in the past and precluded estimating the floor’s duration of use. Most of the finds in the area between the floor and the modern foundations were from the Abbasid period (Bowls; Fig. 2:1–5). Another thin plaster floor (L11) was below L10. It was preserved intact and extended throughout the entire northern part of the square. A few fragments of pottery vessels on top of this floor should also be dated to the Abbasid period.


Several levels of tamped soil (L12), which yielded pottery vessels from the Abbasid period (Cooking kraters, Fig. 2:6–8; a night’s pan, Fig. 2:11; jars, Fig. 2:12, 13), were discovered below L11. The beaten soil layers served to secure a ceramic pipe that was laid on top of thick beaten-earth floor layer (L13; thickness c. 5 cm). Scant remains of plaster were noted on the northern part of Floor L13. The pipe, which traversed the southern part of the square in an east–west direction, was composed of numerous ceramic sections (diam. 0.1 m, average section length 0.25 m; Fig. 2:29) that were coated with a gray bonding material. Despite the efforts to anchor the pipe in place, parts of it had settled. The pipe was apparently connected to the Pool of the Arches, located c. 20 m west of the excavation square. Judging by the course of the pipe it apparently entered the pool between the second and third arches from the north. The average elevation of the pipe was 69.87 m and the elevation of the ceiling at the joint between the two arches was 68.89 m. Accordingly, the pipe seems to have supplied the pool with water rather than drain it. Notwithstanding that, the rather narrow pipe was probably not the only conduit conveying water to the pool.


The excavation continued only in the southern half of the square south of the pipe. Some 15 cm below the level of the pipe was Floor L13, blackened with ash. The floor abutted an embedded installation (depth 15cm) that contained a fill of ash and soot, as well as a broken jar. On the floor around the installation were numerous fragments of pottery vessels dating to the Abbasid period (Jars, Fig. 2:14–17; jugs, Fig. 2:18–21; juglets, Fig. 2:22, 23; a flask, Fig. 2:24; a small bottle, Fig. 2:25). These included deformed and poorly fired vessels, indicating the nearby presence of a pottery workshop.


A beaten-earthen floor (L14) was ascribed to the bottom occupation level. Several pottery fragments from the Abbasid period (A juglet. Fig. 2: 26: a lamp, Fig. 2:27) were discovered on the floor. This level overlaid the natural sand dune, above which the city of Ramla was founded. The layer of sand (L15) was excavated to a depth of c. 0.1 m and yielded fragments of pottery vessels (A lamp, Fig. 2:28; kiln bar, Fig. 2:30) from the Abbasid period, indicating no activity in this area occurred prior to this period.