Phase I. The foundations of two walls (W3, W4; Fig. 2), which were founded on sand dunes and belonged to a building, were exposed in Square C. The foundation of W3 consisted of fieldstones (width 0.6 m), whereas that of W4 was built of coarsely dressed stones. The top of W4 was abutted on the east by a crushed chalk floor (L123A), upon which were a few non-diagnostic potsherds. A small section of a chalk floor (L120A; Fig. 3) that was installed on top of a layer of sand was revealed in Square D. A complete ceramic lamp of a type that occurs from the Umayyad and throughout the Abbasid periods was found on the floor (Fig. 4:29).
A wall (W5) built of ashlars and preserved a single course high was exposed in Square E. The wall’s foundation was built of coarsely dressed stones that were placed on the sand dune. Only the western side of the wall was exposed. A chalk floor (L128), overlain with non-diagnostic potsherds, abutted the wall on the west.
A wall (W6; Fig. 5) built of fieldstones was exposed in Square G. It was coated with pale yellow plaster, applied to a basal layer of white mortar mixed with ground potsherds and crushed shells. The wall enclosed a plastered installation, possibly a cistern. At some point in time the installation was no longer used and became a refuse pit (L131), in which stones, gray soil, potsherds, fragments of glass vessels and numerous animal bones had accumulated. A type of jar, very common to the Abbasid period (Fig. 4:13), was discovered at the bottom of the refuse pit. The upper part of W6 was destroyed when the pool in Phase II was constructed. When the western part of the pool’s floor collapsed, the artifacts from the floor fell into the refuse pit and therefore the ceramic finds in the upper part of the pit include potsherds from Strata I and II, dating from the end of the Umayyad (eighth century CE) until the end of the Abbasid periods. The ceramic finds include a Common Glazed bowl with an everted rim, which is glazed green on the inside and has paint runs on the outside (Fig. 4:2); a plain bowl with a protruding rim (Fig. 4: 5); a krater with a flat slightly inverted rim and two handles, which is decorated on the side with a wavy combed design (Fig. 4:7); a jar with a ridge on its neck (Fig. 4:14); a jar with a prominent rim and a long neck that has a pronounced ridge in the middle (Fig. 4:16); a jar that has a thickened rim, short neck and handles that are drawn from the rim to the upper part of the shoulder (Fig. 4:17); a jar with a thickened rim and a cylindrical neck (Fig. 4:20) and a jar stopper (Fig. 4:28).
Phase II. A crushed-chalk floor (L108) that covered the walls of Phase I was exposed in Square C; its fragmentary sections were traced throughout the square. The floor’s foundation consisted of gray soil and small stones. Numerous potsherds from the Abbasid period were discovered on the floor, including a krater with a flat, slightly inverted rim and two handles that is decorated with a wavy combed decoration (Fig. 4:8) and a cooking krater with a cut rim and two horizontal handles (Fig. 4:10). In addition, a stone object, apparently used as a mold (Fig. 4:31), was found. Ashlar collapse, probably the remains of walls of the building to which Floor 108A belonged, was discerned in the northern, southern and western sections of the square.
An ashlar-built pillar with a fieldstone foundation was exposed in Square D. A chalk floor (L119A) that was discovered throughout the square abutted the pillar. The foundation of another floor (L114A) of light gray soil and many small stones was exposed c. 0.35 m above Floor 119A. The level of Floor 114A was higher than the top of the pillar and it therefore seems to have negated the pillar. The finds from the two floors included a few potsherds that dated to the Abbasid period.
Two habitation levels, similar to the finds in nearby Square D, were exposed in Square E. A chalk floor (L113A) was found and 0.4 m above it was the foundation of a floor (L110A), composed of light gray soil and numerous small stones. Potsherds from the Abbasid period, including a jar (Fig. 4:15), were discovered on both floor levels.
A wall (W1; Fig. 6) built of ashlars was exposed in Square F. A floor foundation of small stones and chalk chips (L111) was uncovered north of the wall. A broken flagstone, probably preserved from the floor, was discovered above the foundation. The potsherds above the floor level included a krater with a thickened and slightly everted rim (Fig. 4:6); a jug with a wide opening and a carinated shoulder (Fig. 4:22); a flask with a high ridged neck and a flattened globular body (Fig. 4:26) and a small grenade-type bottle (Fig. 4:27). A chalk floor (L112) installed on a foundation of small fieldstones was exposed south of the wall. The potsherds on Foundation 111 and Floor 112 dated to the Abbasid period and included a Common Glazed bowl (Fig. 4:1) that has a plain rim glazed on the green inside with yellow bands; an amphora (Fig. 4:21); a buff-ware jug decorated with a mold-made pattern (Fig. 4:23) and a buff-ware jug that has a long neck and a globular body (Fig. 4:24). An elliptical installation (L138), built of fieldstones inside a layer of sand, was exposed west of W1 on a lower level. It seems that this installation was part of the building’s drainage system. Potsherds from the Abbasid period were discovered in the sandy fill around the installation, including jars of well-fired buff-ware that have a rounded rim and a prominent ridge in the middle of the neck (Fig. 4:18, 19) and a flask with a slightly everted rounded rim and a swollen neck (Fig. 4:25).
A pool coated with a thick layer of gray hydraulic plaster (L125) was exposed throughout the entire area of Square G. The basal layer beneath the plaster consisted of white mortar mixed with charcoal chips and crushed potsherds. No walls that delimited the pool were found and it seems that it was larger than the area of the square. The western part of the pool’s floor collapsed into Refuse Pit 131 of Phase I. Potsherds dating to the Abbasid period were discovered in the fill above the floor of the pool (L124), including two Common Glazed bowls, one glazed green on the inside (Fig. 4:3) and the other glazed yellow on the inside with dark brown and green stripes (Fig. 4:4); a krater with a thickened inverted rim and decorated with a horizontal, wavy combed pattern (Fig. 4:9); a closed cooking pot with a thickened rim and a spherical body that is decorated with horizontal grooves (Fig. 4:11); a jar with a rounded rim and a prominent ridge on its neck (Fig. 4:12) and a whole lamp that was made in a mold (Fig. 4:30).
Dark gray soil mixed with limestone chips was exposed throughout the excavation area, c. 0.4 m below the surface. A terracotta water pipe, the likes of which were used in the Ottoman period and the British Mandate era, was discovered in Square F. Due to the proximity of this layer to the surface it seems that most of the remains did not survive.
Two construction phases dating to the Abbasid period were discovered in the excavation. Fragmentary remains of building walls from the beginning of the Abbasid period were ascribed to the early Phase I. Floors of buildings, a few walls and a large pool dating to the end of the Abbasid period were attributed to Phase II. Part of a pipe dating to the Ottoman period or the British Mandate era was exposed in the upper stratum of the excavation, which was poorly preserved due to its proximity to the surface.