Square A3. A storage installation (L117; Fig. 3) partly hewn in the natural bedrock and partly built of fieldstones was exposed. A work surface (depth 0.3 m) with two rock-cuttings in the center of it was exposed in the southern side of the installation. The first rock-cutting was rectangular and was probably used for dry storage, and the second, which was round with a hewn sump in its floor, might have been used to store liquids. The northern side of the installation was built of fieldstones which made up for the differences in height of the natural bedrock, and rendered the installation a uniform elevation. A fragment of a Byzantine-period Gaza jar (sixth–seventh centuries CE; Fig. 4:6) was exposed when the installation was dismantled.
Square B2 yieldedbuilding remains (Fig. 5). A segment of wall (W303) was exposed in the southern part of the square. It was oriented in a north–south direction and built of fieldstones and ashlars; the ashlars were most likely in secondary use. About seven courses survived from the wall’s western face, which was built on bedrock. Potsherds dating to the Crusader and Mamluk periods were exposed in the accumulation alongside the wall. They included an ‘Akko bowl (thirteenth century CE; Fig. 4:7), a sgrafitto bowl (fourteenth century CE; Fig. 4:9), a Crusader bowl decorated with a rhombus pattern (twelfth–thirteenth centuries CE; Fig. 4:10), a green-glazed krater (fourteenth century CE; Fig. 4:12) and a store jar (twelfth–fourteenth century CE; Fig. 4:13). Sheep, goat and cattle bones were also found.
A tabun (L123; Fig. 6) was exposed east of W303. It consisted of two ovens (diam. of upper oven 0.4 m, diam. of lower oven 0.6 m) arranged on top of each other in a stepped fashion. The tabun was made of thick, coarse ceramic material (thickness 8 cm) and was charred on the inside. A Mamluk geometric jug (thirteenth–fourteenth century CE; Fig. 4:11) was found in the fill beneath the tabun. A fragment of a large iron knife (Fig. 7) was also uncovered.
A “floating” floor (L122; Fig. 8) was exposed in the southwestern part of the square. It was severed on its southern side and did not adjoin another building. The floor was constructed of two layers: a bottom layer (thickness 5 cm) composed of crushed white mortar and grog, and an upper layer (thickness 5 cm) consisting of tamped white mortar. Potsherds were found in the fill exposed below the floor when it was dismantled. These included a fragment of Eastern Terra Sigillata ware (second century CE; Fig. 4:1) and a fragment of a Carmel jar (first–second century CE; Fig. 4:5).
A field wall (W300) that was part of the farmhouse built in the nineteenth century was exposed in the northern part of the square.
Square C2. Three walls (W301, W304, W305) aligned in a general east–west direction and built of fieldstones were exposed on the southern part of the square. Wall 301 was constructed of three courses set on soil fill. Collapsed ashlars, which were not excavated, were revealed at a depth of c. 0.3 m below the wall. Pottery sherds recovered from this fill included a cooking pot (first century CE; Fig. 4:2), a Roman-period jug (first century CE; Fig. 4:3) and a bag-shaped jar (first century CE; Fig. 4:4).
An oil press (L129; Figs. 9, 10) was exposed along the square’s northern balk. On the east was a row of three standing, heavy stone weights with rectangular mortises in their upper part. Approximately 0.5 m west of the weights was a collecting installation built of ashlars and mortar, with a circular collecting vessel (diam. 0.48 m) in its floor. Grayish white plaster containing fragments of ribbed potsherds was applied to the installation. This was apparently a crushing installation that utilized a wooden beam and weights—a common technique prevalent in the country from the Hellenistic period until the Byzantine period.
Remains dating to the Roman (third century CE), Byzantine (sixth–seventh century CE) and Mamluk (thirteenth–fourteenth century CE) periods were exposed in the excavation. The remains of a floor that was damaged as a result of secondary use in later periods was ascribed to the Roman period. The Byzantine period finds included a storage installation for domestic use and a crushing installation operated by means of a beam and weights. Architectural remains and a tabun were attributed to the Mamluk period. It seems that the nineteenth-century settlement damaged the remains from the Crusader and Mamluk periods, which were built on the remains of a settlement from the Roman and Byzantine periods.