Ten excavation squares (A1–A10; 5×5 m; Fig. 1) were opened. Two main sedimentological layers were identified in the deep sectional trench: dark brown clay (grumic) soil reaching a maximum thickness in the south (thickness 0.2–1.5 m), which contained angular limestone, several worn potsherds and thinly knapped flint artifacts; and a layer below it of colluvial alluvium (thickness in excess of 3 m) that contained different size limestone and no archaeological finds.
The excavation yielded 2,161 flint items, of which 1,616 items (79.4%) are accompanying debitage—chunks and chips—and 445 (20.6%) are knapped items. The flakes constitute most of the knapped assemblage and include 214 regular flakes (48.1%) and 17 Levallois flakes (3.8%). Primary flakes with a cortex covering of more than half their surface (13.9%), core debitage (11.7%), tools (8.3%), cores (7.9%), blades (4%) and naturally backed blades (2.2%) were also found.
The cores include three Levallois cores (Fig. 2:5) and four pyramidal bladelet cores (Fig. 2:1). The most common tools are retouched flakes, including flakes produced by the Levallois technique (10 items; Fig. 2:4), retouched blades (Fig. 2:3), a burin and a scraper (Fig. 2:2). Cores and flakes (Fig. 2:4, 5) produced by the Levallois technique represent the Middle Paleolithic period (250,000–47,000 YBP). The pyramidal bladelet cores and the scraper are characteristic of the Upper Paleolithic period (47,000–20,000 YBP) or the Epipaleolithic period (c. 20,000–10,000 BCE).
Nearby sectional trenches that were recently excavated because of Highway 6 yielded a trapezoidal or rectangular microlith, which is a tool characteristic of the Kebara Geometric culture—the primary culture of the Middle Epipaleolithic period (c. 15,000–13,000 BCE). Numerous bladelet cores were also found on the eastern side of Highway 70, at a slightly lower elevation than that of Tel Qashish (South).
In conclusion, the excavation at the site exposed flint items that are identified with at least two periods: the Middle Paleolithic period and the Upper Paleolithic/Epipaleolithic period. The items were not found in situ. The original location of the site is probably on the eastern slopes of the Carmel. The nature of the assemblage corroborates the results of the previous excavations in the region, which showed that the eastern slopes of the mountain were also settled and/or used in periods following the Middle Paleolithic period. Further excavations in the region will probably reveal other sites, allowing us to understand how they were formed and connect them to sites that have already been documented—information vital to reconstructing the daily life of man and his exploitation of the environment during the prehistoric periods.