(L106, L117–119; Fig. 3). Four small, courtyard-type quarries were exposed where ashlar stones were hewn (Safrai and Sasson 2001
:4–5). Quarrying steps, severance channels and unfinished building stones (average dimensions 0.2 × 0.5 × 0.6 m) were revealed. Quarrying marks indicate that chisels were used in hewing the stones. It seems that when the hard limestone was completely depleted, the quarrymen did not cut any deeper into the soft limestone but rather went in search of a new area to quarry. Alluvium accumulated in the quarries, along with abraded pottery sherds and modern debris.
Burial Caves. Three caves (1–3) were documented that were hewn in nari and in the soft chalk below it. A square forecourt (c. 2.5 × 2.5 m, depth 1–2 m) was hewn in front of each cave. Each forecourt had an arched opening hewn in one of its walls that led inside the cave. The courtyard was reached by descending stairs or a ladder that were not preserved.
Cave 1 (L113; Fig. 4). The roof of the cave collapsed prior to the excavation. In the southern wall of the cave’s courtyard (L112) was a hewn opening that led to the cave. Another opening was hewn northeast of the courtyard (L114). The cave was used in the modern era as a sheepfold.
Cave 2 (L115). Two arched openings, both of which were filled with alluvium, were hewn in the courtyard’s southern and eastern bedrock walls. Fragments of jars with thickened out-folded rims and ridges on the rim and neck (Fig. 5:6–11) were found on the courtyard’s floor, at a depth of 2 m below the surface; the jars date to the late fourth–early fifth centuries CE. In the 1960s, a concrete floor and a cinder block wall were built in the courtyard, which was used for washing and disinfecting livestock.
Cave 3 (L116). Openings that probably led into the cave were discovered in the walls of the courtyard. Fragments of pottery vessels were discovered on the courtyard’s floor, at a depth of 1.75 m below the surface. These include cooking pots with a plain flaring rim that forms a low ridge (Fig. 5:1), cooking pots with a rounded and grooved rim (Fig. 5:2) and cooking pots with a rounded and grooved rim and a ribbed neck (Fig. 5:3); amphorae with a thickened and everted rim and a slightly ribbed neck (Fig. 5:4, 5); storage jars with a curved and thickened neck and a ridge at its base (Fig. 5:12, 13); and an intact oil lamp (Fig. 5:14). The pottery vessels date to the late fourth–early fifth centuries CE, except the lamp, which dates to the third century CE.
Cist Graves. Three rectangular cist graves (L107, L110, L111; average dimensions: 0.52 × 1.80 m) were hewn in nari. Tombs 107 and 110 were excavated and found devoid of any finds (Fig. 6); Tomb 111 was not excavated.
Winepress, Cistern and other Rock-Hewn Installations. A winepress was exposed, consisting of a treading floor (L101; 3.4 × 4.0 m; Fig. 7) and a collecting vat (L102). In the center of the treading floor, a hewn socket was found for securing a press screw; from this socket a drainage channel emerged that conveyed the must to the collecting vat. The collecting vat was subsequently enlarged and converted into a bell-shaped cistern (max. depth 6 m); the cistern served to collect run-off. Putting winepresses out of use is a phenomenon known throughout the Lower Galilee, perhaps the result of the Islamization of the local population and the ban on the consumption of alcohol. In the 1930s, the cistern was plastered and the winepress’s drainage channel was blocked. A rock-hewn bodeda that included a pressing surface (L105; diam. 0.85 m; Fig. 8) and collecting vat (depth 0.3 m) was discovered south of the winepress. A natural depression in bedrock (L109) was discovered east of the bodeda, which was connected to a shallow rock-cut pit (L108; diam. 1 m, max. depth 0.35 m). This was probably intended to be a cistern, the quarrying of which was incomplete. A natural channel (L104; length 2.5 m, width 0.2 m) in bedrock was revealed west of the depression.