Stratum IV (Chalcolithic period). A wall (W18; length 2.3 m, width 0.5 m; Figs. 2, 3) built of limestone fieldstones set on a layer of brown soil was unearthed in Sq 1, running in a northwest–southeast direction. Floor remains made of limestone flagstones were discovered west of the wall. A layer of alluvium discovered above the floor contained pottery sherds that probably date to the Late Chalcolithic period, among them a bowl (Fig. 4:1), a holemouth vessel (Fig. 4:2) and a jar base (Fig. 4:3).
Stratum III (Roman period). A wall (W16; exposed length 4 m, width 1 m; Figs. 5, 6) constructed of limestone fieldstones set on brown soil was unearthed along a northeast–southwest axis in Sq 2. The wall was evidently used to divert water to adjacent agricultural plots. Several fragments of pottery vessels from the Roman period, including a cooking pot (Fig. 4:13), were discovered on either side of the wall.
In Sq 3, a wall (W20; exposed length 5 m, width 0.7 m; Figs. 7, 8) built of large limestone fieldstones was exposed along a northwest–southeast axis. It functioned either as a dam or as a water-diverting wall. Alluvium and various-sized stones were exposed north of it, as well as a scant amount of pottery sherds dating to the Roman period, including two bowls (Fig. 4:4, 5).
In Sq 4, part of a reservoir (Figs. 9, 10) was exposed; two construction phases were discerned. In the early phase, the reservoir was built with wide walls (W17, W27, W53), most probably to carry a barrel-vault roof. A wall (W54) built in the middle of the reservoir partitioned its interior. An opening (width 1 m, height 1.5 m) was installed in W27. Among the Roman-period pottery sherds ascribed to the early phase are a bowl (Fig. 4:8) and a krater (Fig. 4:12). In the late phase, a wall (W46; Fig. 11) was built in the reservoir, 0.5 m southeast of, and parallel to, W17. Wall 46 was founded on W54 and on collapsed stones. A stone lintel was incorporated in secondary use in the northern part of W46. During this phase, the opening in W27 was blocked (Fig. 12). Pottery sherds of the Roman period that are ascribed to the late phase include two bowls (Fig. 4:6, 7). Owing to the rising water table there, the excavation in the reservoir was not completed.
In Sq 5, a layer of alluvium (L151; Figs. 13, 14) containing a concentration of various-sized stones was exposed. The alluvium included, alongside the stones, pottery sherds from the Roman period. These included two cooking pots (Fig. 4:14, 15), a jug (Fig. 4:19) and a jar (Fig. 4:18), as well as a coin that probably dates from the fourth century CE (IAA 143087). A coin (IAA 143077) found on the surface (L28) is probably an autonomous coin; it was struck at the mint in Tyre and dates to the years 125–98 BCE.
In Sq 6, a wall (W34; Figs. 15, 16) was exposed built of large limestone fieldstones in a north–south direction and preserved to a height of one course. A concentration of limestone fieldstones was discovered west of the wall, in the corner of the square. On either side of the wall, pottery sherds from the Roman period were discovered, including three bowls (Fig. 4:9–11), a cooking pot (Fig. 4:17), two jugs (Fig. 4:20, 21) and a bottle (Fig. 4:22). Two coins from the Byzantine period were found on the surface (L29): one from the years 335–341 CE (IAA 143078), the other from 364–375 CE (IAA 143079). A Seleucid coin minted in Tyre and dating to the years 222–126 BCE (IAA 143084) was discovered to the east of the wall (L42).
In Sq 7, a wall (W37; preserved length 1.5 m, width 0.4 m; Figs. 17, 18) built of limestone fieldstones, some of them dressed, was exposed. It was founded on alluvium and aligned in a general east–west direction. Pottery sherds from the Roman period, including a cooking pot (Fig. 4:16), were discovered in the square.
Stratum II (Byzantine period). A wide wall (W40; exposed length 4 m, width 1.3 m; Figs. 19, 20) oriented along an east–west axis was revealed in Sq 9. Its northern face was built of large stones while its southern face was constructed of medium-sized stones, with a fieldstone and mortar fill between them. Two pillars were built beside the southern face of the wall. Pottery sherds from the Byzantine period were discovered, including two bowls (Fig. 4:23, 24). A coin (manghir; IAA 143085) struck at the Misr el-Mahrousa mint and dating to the years 1574–1603 CE was discovered to the north of the wall (L45).
Stratum I (Mamluk period). A collapse consisting of various-sized stones (Figs. 21, 22) was exposed in Sq 8. It was revealed in a layer of gray soil mixed with stones and pottery sherds from the Mamluk period, including a bowl (Fig. 4:25) and a bowl base (Fig. 4:26). A coin of Sālah Hajji II from the Damascus mint, dating to the years 1388/9 CE (IAA 143080) was discovered on the surface (L30). A layer of light-colored soil (L33) exposed west of the collapsed stonesyielded three coins: an autonomous coin minted in Sidon from the years 109/8–44/3 BCE (IAA 143081), a coin of Barqūq minted in Damascus from the years 1390–1399 CE (IAA 143083) and a fals from the Mamluk period (IAA 143082). A fals of Lajin from the years 1296–1299 CE (IAA 143086) was exposed below the stone collapse (L49).
The Late Chalcolithic architectural remains discovered in Sq 1 are an important revelation, since no stratum from this period was discovered south of Nahal Zippori in past excavations. It seems that in the Late Chalcolithic period, the settlement only extended along the northern side of the stream. The absence of finds from the Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic periods in the excavation evidently indicates that settlement from these periods continued along the northern side of the stream. The building remains from the Roman, Byzantine and Mamluk periods are probably related to the agricultural hinterland of Zippori during these periods.