Area I. Four sites (123–126; Fig. 2) were documented in a rocky area covered with a planted grove. They include a quarry, three cave openings, a cupmark hewn above one of the caves and a rock-hewn winepress that is cracked and damaged. Non-diagnostic pottery sherds were collected next to the opening of Cave 123, evidently a burial cave.
Area II. Sixty-six sites (44–109; Fig. 3) were documented in a rocky area covered with natural thicket. The survey revealed a variety of installations at the sites, among them winepresses, simple oil presses (Fig. 5), hewn cupmarks (Fig. 6), a hewn mortar and other rock-cut installations of unknown function. Among the other ancient features documented in the area are caves, a hewn shaft that was probably part of a burial cave, rock-cuttings, quarries, a round stone that was intended for an olive press in the spot where it was quarried (Fig. 7), a stone clearance heap and a long wall delimiting a cultivation plot.
Area III. Fifteen sites (110–122, 130, 131; Fig. 3) were documented in a rocky area covered with a natural thicket. They include cupmarks, winepresses, an olive press (Fig. 8), a tiny extraction installation, quarries, rock-cuttings, caves and an unidentified installation.
Area IV. Twenty-nine sites (6–34; Fig. 4) were documented on a spur covered with a natural thicket. They include winepresses (Fig. 9), a concentration of 12 caves, some of which were probably used for burial, quarries, walls delineating agricultural plots, cupmarks and a spring (‘Ein el-Jedidah; Fig. 10). The immediate environs of the spring are covered with vegetation that hampered the identification of ancient remains.
Area V. Eight sites (35–42; Fig. 3) were documented on a hill covered with a natural thicket. They include winepresses and a cupmark hewn in bedrock outcrops, and a wall built to delimit a cultivation plot.
Area VI (Fig. 2) is an open rocky area between cultivation plots. Some of the stones have been piled in to clearance heaps, some of which are elongated. Pottery sherds from the Roman period, including Kefar Hananya cooking pots, were gathered in the immediate vicinity of a blocked cave opening (Site 43). In the fields west of Site 43, numerous pottery sherds were collected, including Hellenistic imported bowls as well as fragments of discus lamps, Galilean bowls and Kefar Hananya cooking pots (Type E1) dating to the Roman period.
Area VII (Fig. 4) is an agricultural area with a treated-waste water reservoir near Nahal Zvi. A prehistoric site extending across hundreds of dunams was documented (Sites 128, 135; Site 128 includes Sites 2, 3, 5); the boundaries of the site were identified on the basis of the flint scatters. The flint tools and the flint-production industry documented at the site (Fig. 11) date mostly to the Pottery Neolithic period (c. 90% of the finds). These include a sickle blade with deep denticulation and an axe. About 10% of the flint tools found at the site are eroded and date from the Middle Paleolithic period (the Mousterian culture).Lumps of fired clay (Fig. 12), characteristic of Neolithic-period sites, were also collected. Remains of a wall (Site 135; length 7 m; Fig. 13) built of large, roughly-hewn fieldstones to a height of two–three courses with a core of smaller stones were exposed in the streambed of Nahal Zvi, in the southern part of the site. Pottery sherds collected at the site include a Hellenistic imported bowl, Kefar Hananya cooking pots (Types A3 and E1) from the Roman period, a jar dating to the Early Islamic period and a green-glazed sherd from the Mamluk period.
Area VIII (Fig. 4) includes stones, flint items and pottery sherds (Site 129; Fig. 14) scattered over tens of dunams in agricultural fields on both sides of Nahal Zvi. The flint artifacts include tools dating to the Pottery Neolithic period and the Middle and Late Bronze Ages (Fig. 15). The ceramic finds date to the following periods: Middle Bronze Age (c. 12% of the finds), Iron Age (c. 10%), Persian (c. 5%), Hellenistic (c. 22%), Roman (c. 46%) and Byzantine (c. 5%). The Hellenistic-period finds include imported red-slipped bowls and an amphora sherd. Those ascribed to the Roman period include kraters and Kefar Hananya cooking pots (Types A3, A4, D1, E1), Galilean bowls and jars similar to Shikin-type jars.
Area IX (Fig. 3). The top of a wall (Site 132) was documented near the Nahal Zvi streambed; north of it were scatters of flint artifacts from the Pottery Neolithic period and pottery sherds ranging in date from the Hellenistic through the Early Islamic periods (Site 133). The bulk of ceramic finds from the Hellenistic period (c. 40% of the finds) consists of jars, while the bulk of Roman-period pottery (c. 30% of the finds) comprises Kefar Hananya cooking pots (Types A3 and A4). The Byzantine-period pottery (c. 20% of the finds) includes imported red-slipped bowls.
Area X (Fig. 3). Flint items, largely non-diagnostic, were found scattered over c. 2 dunams in an agricultural area. Several of the flint tools date to the Middle Paleolithic period (Site 134).
Area XI (Fig. 3). Pottery sherds dating to the Hellenistic (c. 15% of the finds) and Roman (c. 85% of the finds) periods were found scattered for along several hundred meters in orchards sloping gently southward (Site 136). The finds from the Hellenistic period include red-slipped imported bowls, and those from the Roman period include Galilean bowls and Kefar Hananya cooking pots and bowls (Types A3 and E1).
Area XII (Fig. 4). Pottery sherds dating to the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine (majority of the finds) and Mamluk periods were found scattered in an agricultural area along the bank of Nahal Zvi (Site 1).
Area XIII (Fig. 4). Pottery sherds dating mainly to the Roman period with some from the Byzantine period, were found scattered across farmland (Site 4). The finds from the Roman period include Kefar Hananya cooking pots, while those from the Byzantine period include imported red-slipped bowls.
Area XIV (Fig. 3). Flint items and fragments of pottery vessels were found scattered in an agricultural area bordering on a natural thicket (Site 127). The lithic finds include non-diagnostic flint flakes, a sickle blade from the Pottery Neolithic period, a Canaanean blade and a fragment of a basalt basin (Fig. 16). The ceramic artifacts date from the Hellenistic-period sherds (c. 30% of the finds), including imported bowls; the Roman period (c. 30% of the finds), including Kefar Hananya cooking pots (Type B4); and the Byzantine period (c. 40% of the finds), including imported red-slipped bowls.
Two types of sites were documented in the survey. In the hilly, wooded areas, one type of site was documented with numerous agricultural installations, caves, quarries and rock-cuttings. The hilly areas are characterized by many bedrock outcrops that were exploited for quarrying, while the ground between the bedrock outcrops was cleared of stones and farmed. This agricultural model allowed cultivation of the rocky, hilly areas. This model also occurs in the western Jezre‘el Valley, and presumably typified the region’s agriculture over long periods of time.
In the open agricultural areas, mainly near Nahal Zvi, sites with flint and pottery scatters were documented. Noteworthy is Area VII, where an extensive prehistoric site dating from the Pottery Neolithic period was discovered. The farmland in and around the survey area was the agricultural hinterland of large settlements situated beyond the boundaries of the survey (e.g., Ma‘lul, ‘Ein el-Hilu, Khirbat Mujeidel and Tel Shimron). Having said that, at least one site (129; Area VIII) in the agricultural region of the survey had scatters of flint tools and pottery sherds that ranged from the Neolithic, through the Middle and Late Bronze Ages and continious, from the Iron Age II until the Byzantine the period, possibly indicating this was a settlement site connected to the nearby agricultural installations.
In examining the twenty-five winepresses documented in the survey, four main types of winepresses (1–4, below) were discerned. These include a tiny extraction installation, a simple winepress, a Ta‘anach-type winepress and a complex winepress. The eight olive presses found belong to two types (5, 6, below): a pressing installation and a simple olive press.
1. A tiny extraction instllation, like the one at Site 117, that includes a small collecting vat and treading floor linked by a hewn channel.
2. A simple winepress, like the two documented in Sites 66 and 79, that includes a makeshift treading floor and an adjacent circular collecting vat, both carelessly hewn.
3. A Ta‘anach-type winepress, thirteen of which were documented in the survey (Sites 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 65, 71, 76, 91). This type includes a rectangular treading floor with rounded corners and two hewn channels in the floor leading to a rectangular collecting vat. The Ta‘anach winepress dates to the Middle Bronze Age (Getzov, Covello-Paran and Tepper 2011).
4. A complex winepress, like the three documented in Sites 98, 116 and 122. This type includes a large treading floor and several collecting vats connected by hewn channels. The quarrying of these winepresses was neat and well-executed. It is customary to date this type of installation to the Roman and Byzantine periods, particularly to the latter one.
5. A pressing installation, like the one identified at Site 118, which includes a rock-cut basin used for pressing olives and producing oil. It is generally agreed that this type of installation postdates the Roman period.
6. A simple olive press, like the seven documented in the survey (Sites 55, 56, 59, 60, 64, 118, 121), six of which are concentrated in the western part of Area II. These include a smoothed, sloping bedrock surface, which was carelessly hewn into an irregular shape that conforms to the bedrock outline. A round pit of sorts that resembles a large cupmark was hewn in it. Researchers ascribe the use of the simple olive press to the Bronze and Iron Ages (cf. the built installation at Tel Rekhesh; Paz et al. 2010:34–36, Fig. 10).
The distribution of the different types of winepresses and olive presses in the survey area suggests that each of these types was adapted for specific requirements; it is also apparent that they operated at different times. The survey results seem to lead to four conclusions regarding the cultivation of vineyards and olives and the production of wine and olive oil.
1. In the Middle Bronze Age and Iron Age, viticulture and wine-production occurred mainly in and around Areas II, IV and V, while it is possible that olives were grown and oil was produced on and around the western fringes of Area II.
2. It appears that from the Roman period onward the production of wine and oil was concentrated mainly in and around Areas II and III.
3. It seems that traditionally olives were grown and oil was produced mainly in Areas II and III, whereas viticulture took place over more extensive areas.
4. The number of early winepresses is about four times greater than the number of later ones, while the number of early olive presses is seven times greater than the number of later ones. This may indicate changes in the cultivation areas and their distribution, as well as, or even primarily, changes in agricultural and production technologies over time.