(F2; diam. 4–5 m, depth 2.5 m; Fig. 1). The kiln was round and its bottom part was hewn in the bedrock and lined with wadi cobbles (0.20–0.30 m). All that remained of the upper part, which survived to a height of 1.0–1.5 m, was the base of its dome that was built of different size fieldstones (0.10–1.00 m). The opening of the kiln faced west (width 1.50 m). The upper part of the installation was cleared and its western half, which was excavated by a backhoe, contained white ash and different size stones of limestone, some of which were burnt. A layer of black ash was discerned at the bottom of the kiln.
Water cistern (F11; diam. 0.4 m, depth 2 m; Fig. 2). The cistern was bell-shaped and rock-hewn; a round opening (diam. 0.9 m) was located in the middle of its ceiling. The southeastern side of the cistern’s ceiling had collapsed. At first its remains were excavated manually; later the fill was cleared by means of a backhoe down to the level of bedrock. Elliptical horizontal notches (0.1–0.2 m, depth 6 cm) that were probably used to secure some sort of water raising device were hewn below the tops of the northwestern and southeastern edges of the opening (0.3 m). The opening was found blocked by large stones; a seventeenth century Ottoman coin (IAA No. 107074) minted in Egypt that probably dates to the reign of Sultan Ahmed I (1603–1617 CE) was recovered from between these stones.
Rock-hewn Shafts. Four rock-hewn shafts were excavated but not indicated on the plan: (F4: an elliptical cavity diam. 0.75 m, depth 1.50 m; F5: an irregularly-shaped cavity, diam. 0.9 m, depth 1.20 m; F6: a round cavity, diam. 0.3 m, depth 0.51 m; F7: an elliptical cavity, diam. 0.9 m, depth 2.08 m). Two steps were located in the entrance to Shaft F4. The shafts, which were excavated in their entirety, were devoid of any finds and did not lead to other subterranean cavities. The possibility that they were abandoned before they were completed cannot be ruled out.
Scattered Rock-cuttings. Six isolated rock-cutting clusters, not indicated on the plan, were cleaned; four were shallow (F8: 1.0–1.5 m, depth 0.23–0.43 m; F10: 1.0–2.3 m, depth 0.05–0.25 m; F16: 0.7–0.8 m, depth 0.09–0.29 m; F21: 2.9–3.0 m, depth 0.25 m) and two were deep (F15: 0.6–1.5 m, depth 0.5–0.7 m; F18: 0.6–1.5 m, depth 0.55–0.75 m). Detachment channels 8–10 cm wide were found in F8 and F10. The sides of the channels and those above the front of Cave F9 (see below) were broken as a result of collapse. Detachment grooves indicating that at least six stone blocks of different sizes were removed were noted in the floor of F21. The bottom of the northeastern side of F15 was curved. A step (width 0.4 m, thickness 0.2–0.4 m) was left in place on the northwestern side of F18, c. 0.3 m below the surface. These two rectangular rock-cuttings were 7 m apart and had identical dimensions. Soil fill was found between their hewn walls and the bottom layer of bedrock which was not hewn. These cuttings were probably intended for use as tombs although no evidence of this was found.
Natural Caves. A natural hollow that was surrounded by rocks was excavated (F1; 2.5–2.9 m, depth 1.14 m). A bedrock projection on its southeastern side protruded inward, into the hollow. In the soil fill that was excavated to the level of bedrock a few non-diagnostic potsherds were found that had been swept there together with the alluvium or by some other activity that occurred there. It seems that this is a rock shelter or a natural cave whose ceiling had collapsed.
The entrance to a natural cave, which was blocked with soil, and half of an irregularly-shaped hollow in its façade (F9) were also excavated. The bedrock above the cave opening (height 1 m) was partly straightened and it was flanked on either side by triangular rock cuttings. No finds were discovered in the excavation in the opening of the cave. Soil collapse mixed with stones, some of which were roughly hewn, was excavated in the hollow above the opening (4.0–4.5 m). The collapse also contained a handmade ceramic bowl (Fig. 3) that is slipped and red burnished. It has a high loop handle that protrudes above the rim and an omphalos base, and dates to the end of Early Bronze IA. The hollow was apparently formed by the collapse of part of the cave’s ceiling that resulted from an attempt at quarrying, the remains of which were visible along the cave’s façade. Six natural cavities and recesses in the limestone bedrock outcrop (F3, F12, F13, F14, F17, F19) that were devoid of any finds were also excavated.